When cities or counties file for relief under chapter 9, there may be a great deal of interest in the case from entities wanting to appear and be heard. The Bankruptcy Rules provide that "[t]he Secretary of the Treasury of the United States may, or if requested by the court shall, intervene in a chapter 9 case." Fed. R. Bankr. P. 2018(c). Further, "[r]epresentatives of the state in which the debtor is located may intervene in a chapter 9 case." Id. In addition, the Bankruptcy Code permits the Securities and Exchange Commission to appear and be heard on any issue and gives parties in interest the right to appear and be heard on any issue in a case. 11 U.S.C. §§ 901(a), 1109. Parties in interest include municipal employees, local residents, non-resident owners of real property, special tax payers, securities firms, and local banks.