California Criminal Jury Instructions (CALCRIM) (2017)
1001. Rape or Spousal Rape in ConcertDownload PDF
1001.Rape or Spousal Rape in Concert (Pen. Code, § 264.1)
The defendant[s] [ <insert name[s] if not all defendants in
trial charged with this count>] (is/are) charged [in Count ] with
committing rape by acting in concert [with <insert name[s]
or description[s] of uncharged participant[s]>] [in violation of Penal Code
To prove that a defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must prove
<Alternative A—defendant committed rape>
[1.] [The defendant personally committed forcible rape and
voluntarily acted with someone else who aided and abetted its
<Alternative B—defendant aided and abetted>
[(1/2).] [The defendant voluntarily aided and abetted someone else
who personally committed forcible rape.]
To decide whether the defendant[s] [or <insert name[s] or
description[s] of uncharged participant[s]>] committed rape, please refer
to the separate instructions that I (will give/have given) you on that
crime. To decide whether the defendant[s] [or <insert
name[s] or description[s] of uncharged participant[s]>] aided and abetted
rape, please refer to the separate instructions that I (will give/have
given) you on aiding and abetting. You must apply those instructions
when you decide whether the People have proved rape in concert.
<Make certain that all appropriate instructions on rape and aiding and
abetting are given.>
[To prove the crime of rape in concert, the People do not have to prove
a prearranged plan or scheme to commit rape.]
New January 2006
The court has a sua sponte duty to give an instruction deﬁning the elements of the
crime. (See Pen. Code, § 264.1; People v. Ramirez (1987) 189 Cal.App.3d 603, 621
[236 Cal.Rptr. 404] [rape in concert is a separate crime, not an enhancement].) The
court also has a sua sponte duty to instruct on rape. Give one or more of the
following instructions deﬁning rape: CALCRIM No. 1000, or CALCRIM Nos.
Select alternative A or B, or both, depending on whether the defendant personally
committed the crime or aided and abetted someone else.
Depending on the evidence, give the ﬁnal bracketed paragraph on request regarding
the lack of a prearranged plan. (See People v. Calimee (1975) 49 Cal.App.3d 337,
341–342 [122 Cal.Rptr. 658].)
See generally CALCRIM No. 400, Aiding and Abetting: General Principles and
CALCRIM No. 401, Aiding and Abetting: Intended Crimes.
• Elements. Pen. Code, § 264.1; see People v. Mom (2000) 80 Cal.App.4th
1217, 1224 [96 Cal.Rptr.2d 172] [requires no greater force than that necessary
for forcible rape], disapproved on other grounds in People v. Griffın (2004) 33
Cal.4th 1015, 1028 [16 Cal.Rptr.3d 891, 94 P.3d 1089].
• Forcible Rape Deﬁned. Pen. Code, § 261(a)(2).
• Spousal Rape Deﬁned. Pen. Code, § 262(a)(1).
• Aiding and Abetting. People v. Adams (1993) 19 Cal.App.4th 412, 445–446
[23 Cal.Rptr.2d 512]; see People v. Beeman (1984) 35 Cal.3d 547, 560–561
[199 Cal.Rptr. 60, 674 P.2d 1318].
2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Sex Offenses and
Crimes Against Decency, § 19.
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 142,
Crimes Against the Person, § 142.20[a], [c] (Matthew Bender).
Couzens & Bigelow, Sex Crimes: California Law and Procedure §§ 12:16, 12:17
(The Rutter Group).
There is conﬂicting authority whether all types of forcible rape may be the basis
for charging a rape in concert. (Compare In re Jose M. (1994) 21 Cal.App.4th
1470, 1477 [27 Cal.Rptr.2d 55] [rape by duress, menace, and fear unavailable
under Pen. Code, § 264.1] and People v. Mom (2000) 80 Cal.App.4th 1217,
1222–1223 [96 Cal.Rptr.2d 172] [§ 264.1 only includes rape involving “force” and
“violence”], disapproved on other grounds in People v. Griffın (2004) 33 Cal.4th
1015, 1028 [16 Cal.Rptr.3d 891, 94 P.3d 1089], with People v. Wheeler (1977) 71
Cal.App.3d 902, 907 [139 Cal.Rptr. 737] [§ 264.1 includes any unlawful use of
force, including threat of harm].) The instruction addresses rape accomplished by
force or violence. (See Pen. Code, §§ 261(a)(2), 264.1.) If another basis for
charging rape in concert is argued, for example, rape by duress, menace, fear, or
threats (see Pen. Code, § 261(a)(2), (6), & (7)), see CALCRIM No. 1000, Rape or
Spousal Rape by Force, Fear, or Threats for appropriate language that may be
included on request.
Penal Code section 264.1 deals with a crime of substance, and is not an
SEX OFFENSES CALCRIM No. 1001
enhancement statute, as discussed in People v. Best (1983) 143 Cal.App.3d 232,
237 [191 Cal.Rptr. 614].
LESSER INCLUDED OFFENSES
• Assault. Pen. Code, § 240.
•Assault With Intent to Commit Rape. Pen. Code, § 220; In re Jose M. (1994)
21 Cal.App.4th 1470, 1477 [27 Cal.Rptr.2d 55]; People v. Moran (1973) 33
Cal.App.3d 724, 730 [109 Cal.Rptr. 287] [where forcible rape is charged].
• Attempted Rape. Pen. Code, §§ 664, 261.
• Battery. Pen. Code, § 242.
• Rape. Pen. Code, §§ 261, 262.
Need Not Personally Participate
Adefendant may be convicted of rape in concert if he or she was at the general
scene of the rape and aided and abetted another person in accomplishing the act,
even if the defendant did not personally participate in the act or was not personally
present at the exact scene of the act. (See People v. Lopez (1981) 116 Cal.App.3d
882, 887–888 [172 Cal.Rptr. 374]; People v. Barnett (1976) 54 Cal.App.3d 1046,
1049 [127 Cal.Rptr. 88] [oral copulation in concert although not in room when act
took place]; People v. Champion (1995) 9 Cal.4th 879, 933 [39 Cal.Rptr.2d 547]
[rape in concert by holding victim’s family at gun point in another room].)
However, the Supreme Court has not resolved whether a person acts in concert
when his accomplice assists in the commission of the crime, but is not present at
the general scene (for example, when the accomplice provides the rapist with
information about the victim, or pays the rapist to commit the act). (People v.
Champion (1995) 9 Cal.4th 879, 933, fn. 22 [891 P.2d 93].)
CALCRIM No. 1001 SEX OFFENSES