CALCRIM No. 1001. Rape in Concert (Pen. Code, § 264.1)
Judicial Council of California Criminal Jury Instructions (2023 edition)Download PDF
1001.Rape in Concert (Pen. Code, § 264.1)
The defendant[s] [ <insert name[s] if not all defendants in
trial charged with this count>] (is/are) charged [in Count ] with
committing rape by acting in concert [with <insert name[s]
or description[s] of uncharged participant[s]>] [in violation of Penal Code
To prove that a defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must prove
<Alternative A - defendant committed rape>
[1.] [The defendant personally committed forcible rape and
voluntarily acted with someone else who aided and abetted its
<Alternative B - defendant aided and abetted>
[(1/2).] [The defendant voluntarily aided and abetted someone else
who personally committed forcible rape.]
To decide whether the defendant[s] [or <insert name[s] or
description[s] of uncharged participant[s]>] committed rape, please refer
to the separate instructions that I (will give/have given) you on that
crime. To decide whether the defendant[s] [or <insert
name[s] or description[s] of uncharged participant[s]>] aided and abetted
rape, please refer to the separate instructions that I (will give/have given)
you on aiding and abetting. You must apply those instructions when you
decide whether the People have proved rape in concert.
<Make certain that all appropriate instructions on rape and aiding and
abetting are given.>
[To prove the crime of rape in concert, the People do not have to prove a
prearranged plan or scheme to commit rape.]
New January 2006; Revised October 2021, March 2022
The court has a sua sponte duty to give an instruction defining the elements of the
crime. (See Pen. Code, § 264.1; People v. Ramirez (1987) 189 Cal.App.3d 603, 621
[236 Cal.Rptr. 404] [rape in concert is a separate crime, not an enhancement].) The
court also has a sua sponte duty to instruct on rape. Give one or more of the
following instructions defining rape: CALCRIM No. 1000, or CALCRIM Nos.
Select alternative A or B, or both, depending on whether the defendant personally
committed the crime or aided and abetted someone else.
Depending on the evidence, give the final bracketed paragraph on request regarding
the lack of a prearranged plan. (See People v. Calimee (1975) 49 Cal.App.3d 337,
341-342 [122 Cal.Rptr. 658].)
See generally CALCRIM No. 400, Aiding and Abetting: General Principles and
CALCRIM No. 401, Aiding and Abetting: Intended Crimes.
CALCRIM No. 3185, Sex Offenses: Sentencing Factor - Using Force or Fear
Against Minor Under 14 Years/14 Years or Older.
• Elements. Pen. Code, § 264.1; see People v. Mom (2000) 80 Cal.App.4th 1217,
1224 [96 Cal.Rptr.2d 172] [requires no greater force than that necessary for
forcible rape], disapproved on other grounds in People v. Griffın (2004) 33
Cal.4th 1015, 1028 [16 Cal.Rptr.3d 891, 94 P.3d 1089].
• Forcible Rape Defined. Pen. Code, § 261(a)(2).
• Aiding and Abetting. People v. Adams (1993) 19 Cal.App.4th 412, 445-446 [23
Cal.Rptr.2d 512]; see People v. Beeman (1984) 35 Cal.3d 547, 560-561 [199
Cal.Rptr. 60, 674 P.2d 1318].
There is conflicting authority whether all types of forcible rape may be the basis for
charging a rape in concert. (Compare In re Jose M. (1994) 21 Cal.App.4th 1470,
1477 [27 Cal.Rptr.2d 55] [rape by duress, menace, and fear unavailable under Pen.
Code, § 264.1] and People v. Mom (2000) 80 Cal.App.4th 1217, 1222-1223 [96
Cal.Rptr.2d 172] [§ 264.1 only includes rape involving “force” and “violence”],
disapproved on other grounds in People v. Griffın (2004) 33 Cal.4th 1015, 1028 [16
Cal.Rptr.3d 891, 94 P.3d 1089], with People v. Wheeler (1977) 71 Cal.App.3d 902,
907 [139 Cal.Rptr. 737] [§ 264.1 includes any unlawful use of force, including
threat of harm].) The instruction addresses rape accomplished by force or violence.
(See Pen. Code, §§ 261(a)(2), 264.1.) If another basis for charging rape in concert is
argued, for example, rape by duress, menace, fear, or threats (see Pen. Code,
§ 261(a)(2), (6), & (7)), see CALCRIM No. 1000, Rape by Force, Fear, or Threats
for appropriate language that may be included on request.
Penal Code section 264.1 deals with a crime of substance, and is not an
enhancement statute, as discussed in People v. Best (1983) 143 Cal.App.3d 232, 237
[191 Cal.Rptr. 614].
LESSER INCLUDED OFFENSES
• Assault. Pen. Code, § 240.
• Assault With Intent to Commit Rape. Pen. Code, § 220; In re Jose M. (1994) 21
Cal.App.4th 1470, 1477 [27 Cal.Rptr.2d 55]; People v. Moran (1973) 33
CALCRIM No. 1001 SEX OFFENSES
Cal.App.3d 724, 730 [109 Cal.Rptr. 287] [where forcible rape is charged].
• Attempted Rape. Pen. Code, §§ 664, 261.
• Battery. Pen. Code, § 242.
• Rape. Pen. Code, § 261.
Need Not Personally Participate
A defendant may be convicted of rape in concert if he or she was at the general
scene of the rape and aided and abetted another person in accomplishing the act,
even if the defendant did not personally participate in the act or was not personally
present at the exact scene of the act. (See People v. Lopez (1981) 116 Cal.App.3d
882, 887-888 [172 Cal.Rptr. 374]; People v. Barnett (1976) 54 Cal.App.3d 1046,
1049 [127 Cal.Rptr. 88] [oral copulation in concert although not in room when act
took place]; People v. Champion (1995) 9 Cal.4th 879, 933 [39 Cal.Rptr.2d 547]
[rape in concert by holding victim’s family at gun point in another room].)
However, the Supreme Court has not resolved whether a person acts in concert
when his accomplice assists in the commission of the crime, but is not present at the
general scene (for example, when the accomplice provides the rapist with
information about the victim, or pays the rapist to commit the act). (People v.
Champion (1995) 9 Cal.4th 879, 933, fn. 22 [891 P.2d 93].)
2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (4th ed. 2012) Sex Offenses and
Crimes Against Decency, § 21.
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 142, Crimes
Against the Person, § 142.20[a], [c] (Matthew Bender).
Couzens & Bigelow, Sex Crimes: California Law and Procedure §§ 12:18, 12:19
(The Rutter Group).
SEX OFFENSES CALCRIM No. 1001