CALCRIM No. 1047. Sexual Penetration of an Intoxicated Person (Pen. Code, § 289(e))
Judicial Council of California Criminal Jury Instructions (2023 edition)Download PDF
1047.Sexual Penetration of an Intoxicated Person (Pen. Code,
The defendant is charged [in Count ] with sexual penetration of a
person while that person was intoxicated [in violation of Penal Code
To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must
1. The defendant committed an act of sexual penetration with
2. The penetration was accomplished by using (a/an) (foreign
object[,]/ [or] substance[,]/ [or]instrument[,]/ [or]device[,]/ [or]
3. The effect of (a/an) (intoxicating/anesthetic/controlled) substance
prevented the other person from resisting the act;
4. The defendant knew or reasonably should have known that the
effect of that substance prevented the other person from resisting
Sexual penetration means (penetration, however slight, of the genital or
anal opening of the other person/ [or] causing the other person to
penetrate, however slightly, the defendant’s or someone else’s genital or
anal opening/ [or] causing the other person to penetrate, however
slightly, his or her own genital or anal opening) for the purpose of sexual
abuse, arousal, or gratification.
A person is prevented from resisting if he or she is so intoxicated that he
or she cannot give legal consent. In order to give legal consent, a person
must be able to exercise reasonable judgment. In other words, the person
must be able to understand and weigh the physical nature of the act, its
moral character, and probable consequences. Legal consent is consent
given freely and voluntarily by someone who knows the nature of the act
[<If appropriate, insert controlled substance> (is/are) [a]
[A foreign object, substance, instrument, or device includes any part of the
body except a sexual organ.] [An unknown object includes any foreign
object, substance, instrument, or device, or any part of the body,
including a penis, if it is not known what object penetrated the opening.]
[Penetration for sexual abuse means penetration for the purpose of
causing pain, injury, or discomfort.]
<Defense: Reasonable Belief Capable of Consent>
[The defendant is not guilty of this crime if (he/she) actually and
reasonably believed that the person was capable of consenting to the act,
even if the defendant’s belief was wrong. The People have the burden of
proving beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant did not actually
and reasonably believe that the woman was capable of consenting. If the
People have not met this burden, you must find the defendant not
New January 2006; Revised April 2020
The court has a sua sponte duty to give an instruction defining the elements of the
A space is provided to identify controlled substances if the parties agree that there is
no issue of fact.
Defenses - Instructional Duty
The court has a sua sponte duty to instruct on the defense of reasonable belief the
person was capable of consent if there is sufficient evidence to support the defense.
(See People v. Giardino (2000) 82 Cal.App.4th 454, 472 [98 Cal.Rptr.2d 315].)
CALCRIM No. 1046, Sexual Penetration in Concert, may be given in conjunction
with this instruction if appropriate.
• Elements. Pen. Code, § 289(e).
• Specific Intent Crime. People v. McCoy (2013) 215 Cal.App.4th 1510, 1538 [156
• Controlled Substances Defined. Health & Safety Code, §§ 11054-11058; see
People v. Avila (2000) 80 Cal.App.4th 791, 798, fn. 7 [95 Cal.Rptr.2d 651].
• Foreign Object, Substance, Instrument, or Device Defined. Pen. Code,
§ 289(k)(2); People v. Wilcox (1986) 177 Cal.App.3d 715, 717 [223 Cal.Rptr.
170] [a finger is a “foreign object”].
• Sexual Penetration Defined. Pen. Code, § 289(k)(1); see People v. Quintana
(2001) 89 Cal.App.4th 1362, 1371 [108 Cal.Rptr.2d 235] [penetration of genital
opening refers to penetration of labia majora, not the vagina].
• Unknown Object Defined. Pen. Code, § 289(k)(3).
• Anesthetic Effect Defined. See People v. Avila (2000) 80 Cal.App.4th 791,
798-799 [95 Cal.Rptr.2d 651] [in context of sodomy].
CALCRIM No. 1047 SEX OFFENSES
• Prevented From Resisting Defined. See People v. Giardino (2000) 82
Cal.App.4th 454, 465-467 [98 Cal.Rptr.2d 315] [in context of rape].
• Sexual Abuse Defined. People v. White (1986) 179 Cal.App.3d 193, 205-206
[224 Cal.Rptr. 467].
LESSER INCLUDED OFFENSES
• Assault. Pen. Code, § 240.
• Attempted Sexual Penetration. Pen. Code, §§ 664, 289(a)(1) & (2), (g).
• Attempted Sexual Penetration of Intoxicated Person. Pen. Code, §§ 663, 289(e).
• Battery. Pen. Code, § 242.
See the Related Issues section under CALCRIM No. 1045, Sexual Penetration by
Force, Fear, or Threats.
2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (4th ed. 2012) Sex Offenses and
Crimes Against Decency, §§ 56, 59-61, 178.
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 142, Crimes
Against the Person, § 142.20[d],  (Matthew Bender).
Couzens & Bigelow, Sex Crimes: California Law and Procedure §§ 12:16, 12:17
(The Rutter Group).
SEX OFFENSES CALCRIM No. 1047