Criminal Law

1051. Sexual Penetration by Fraud

The defendant is charged [in Count ______] with sexual penetration by fraud.

To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must prove that:

1. The defendant committed an act of sexual penetration with another person;

2. At the time of the act, the defendant and the other person were not married to each other;

3. The penetration was accomplished by using (a/an) (foreign object[,]/ [or] substance[,]/ [or] instrument[,]/ [or] device[,]/ [or] unknown object);

4. The other person submitted to the act because (he/she) believed the person (committing the act/causing the act to be committed) was (his/her) spouse;


5. The defendant tricked, lied, [used an artifice or pretense,] or concealed information, intending to make the other person believe that they were married to each other.

Sexual penetration means (penetration, however slight, of the genital or anal opening of the other person/ [or] causing the other person to penetrate, however slightly, the defendant's or someone else's genital or anal opening/ [or] causing the other person to penetrate, however slightly, his or her own genital or anal opening) for the purpose of sexual abuse, arousal, or gratification.

[A foreign object, substance, instrument, or device includes any part of the body except a sexual organ.] [An unknown object includes any foreign object, substance, instrument, or device, or any part of the body, including a penis, if it is not known what object was used to accomplish the penetration.]

[Penetration for sexual abuse means penetration for the purpose of causing pain, injury, or discomfort.]

Bench Notes

Instructional Duty

The court has a sua sponte duty to give an instruction defining the elements of the crime.

Related Instructions

CALCRIM No. 1046, Sexual Penetration in Concert, may be given in conjunction with this instruction if appropriate.


Elements. Pen. Code, § 289(f).

Foreign Object, Substance, Instrument, or Device Defined. Pen. Code, § 289(k)(2); see People v. Wilcox (1986) 177 Cal.App.3d 715, 717 [223 Cal.Rptr. 170] [a finger is a "foreign object"].

Sexual Penetration Defined. Pen. Code, § 289(k)(1); see People v. Quintana (2001) 89 Cal.App.4th 1362, 1371 [108 Cal.Rptr.2d 235] [penetration of genital opening refers to penetration of labia majora, not the vagina].

Unknown Object Defined. Pen. Code, § 289(k)(3).

Sexual Abuse Defined. People v. White (1986) 179 Cal.App.3d 193, 205-206 [224 Cal.Rptr. 467].

Secondary Sources

2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Sex Offenses and Crimes Against Decency, §§ 47, 49.

6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 142, Crimes Against the Person, § 142.20[1][d], [6] (Matthew Bender).

Lesser Included Offenses

Assault. Pen. Code, § 240.

Attempted Sexual Penetration by Fraud. Pen. Code, §§ 664, 289(f).

Battery. Pen. Code, § 242.

Related Issues

See the Related Issues section under CALCRIM No. 1045, Sexual Penetration by Force, Fear, or Threats.

(New January 2006)