California Criminal Jury Instructions (CALCRIM) (2017)

1060. Lewd or Lascivious Act: Dependent Person

Download PDF
(v) Lewd and Lascivious Act
1060.Lewd or Lascivious Act: Dependent Person (Pen. Code,
§ 288(b)(2) & (c)(2))
The defendant is charged [in Count ] with a lewd or lascivious
act on a dependent person [by force or fear] [in violation of Penal Code
section 288].
To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must
prove that:
1. The defendant was a caretaker of a dependent person;
2. The defendant, while serving as a caretaker, willfully
(committed/conspired to commit/aided and abetted/facilitated) a
lewd or lascivious act on that person;
[AND]
3. The defendant (committed/conspired to commit/aided and
abetted/facilitated) the act with the intent of arousing, appealing
to, or gratifying the lust, passions, or sexual desires of (himself/
herself) or the dependent person(;/.)
<Give element 4 when instructing on force or violence>
[AND
4. In (committing/conspiring to commit/aiding and abetting/
facilitating) the act, the defendant used force, violence, duress,
menace, or fear of immediate and unlawful bodily injury to the
dependent person or someone else.]
Alewd or lascivious act is any touching of a person with the intent to
sexually arouse the perpetrator or the other person. A lewd or lascivious
act includes touching any part of the person’s body, either on the bare
skin or through the clothes the person is wearing. [A lewd or lascivious
act includes causing someone to touch his or her own body or someone
else’s body at the instigation of the perpetrator who has the required
intent.]
Someone commits an act willfully when he or she does it willingly or on
purpose. It is not required that he or she intend to break the law, hurt
someone else, or gain any advantage.
Acaretaker is an owner, operator, administrator, employee, independent
contractor, agent, or volunteer of a public or private facility, including
(a/an) <insert specific facility from Pen. Code, § 288(f)(1)>,
that provides care for dependent persons or for those aged 65 or older.
793
0085
Adependent person is someone who has physical or mental impairments
that substantially restrict his or her ability to carry out normal activities
or to protect his or her rights. This definition includes, but is not limited
to, those who have developmental disabilities or whose physical or
mental abilities have been significantly diminished by age.
[Actually arousing, appealing to, or gratifying the lust, passions, or
sexual desires of the perpetrator or dependent person is not required.]
[The force used must be substantially different from or substantially
greater than the force needed to accomplish the lewd and lascivious act
itself.]
[Duress is a direct or implied threat of force, violence, danger, hardship,
or retribution that causes a reasonable person to do [or submit to]
something that he or she would not do [or submit to] otherwise. When
deciding whether the act was accomplished by duress, consider all the
circumstances, including the age of the dependent person and (his/her)
relationship to the defendant.] [Retribution is a form of payback or
revenge.]
[Menace means a threat, statement, or act showing an intent to injure
someone.]
[An act is accomplished by fear if the dependent person is actually and
reasonably afraid [or (he/she) is actually but unreasonably afraid and
the defendant knows of (his/her) fear and takes advantage of it].]
New January 2006; Revised February 2013
BENCH NOTES
Instructional Duty
The court has a sua sponte duty to give this instruction defining the elements of
the crime.
If the defendant is charged in a single count with multiple alleged acts, the court
has a sua sponte duty to instruct on unanimity. (People v. Jones (1990) 51 Cal.3d
294, 321–322 [270 Cal.Rptr. 611, 792 P.2d 643].) The court must determine
whether it is appropriate to give the standard unanimity instruction, CALCRIM No.
3500, Unanimity, or the modified unanimity instruction, CALCRIM No. 3501,
Unanimity: When Generic Testimony of Offense Presented. Review the discussion
in the bench notes to these two instructions and People v. Jones, supra, 51 Cal.3d
at pp. 321–322.
If the defendant is charged with using force or fear in committing the lewd act on a
dependent person, give bracketed element 4 and the bracketed sentence that begins
with “The force must be substantially different.” (See People v. Pitmon (1985) 170
Cal.App.3d 38, 52 [216 Cal.Rptr. 221] [court has sua sponte duty to define “force”
CALCRIM No. 1060 SEX OFFENSES
794
0086
as used in Pen. Code, § 288(b)(1)]; People v. Griffın (2004) 33 Cal.4th 1015,
1018–1019 [16 Cal.Rptr.3d 891, 94 P.3d 1089].) On request, give any of the
relevant bracketed definitions of duress, menace, or fear.
In the paragraph defining “caretaker,” insert applicable caretaker facilities listed in
Penal Code section 288(f)(1), such as a 24-hour health facility, a home health
agency, or a community care or respite care facility, depending on the facts of the
case.
Penal Code section 288(b)(2) or (c)(2) does not apply to a caretaker who is a
spouse of, or who is in an equivalent domestic relationship with, the dependent
person. (Pen. Code, § 288(h).)
Give the bracketed sentence that begins, “Actually arousing, appealing to,” on
request. (People v. McCurdy (1923) 60 Cal.App. 499, 502 [213 P. 59].)
Defenses—Instructional Duty
In the context of lewd acts accomplished by force on a minor, there is
disagreement as to whether knowing consent by the minor is an affirmative
defense. (See People v. Cicero (1984) 157 Cal.App.3d 465, 484–485 [204 Cal.Rptr.
582] [when no physical harm, knowing consent of minor is an affirmative defense];
People v. Quinones (1988) 202 Cal.App.3d 1154, 1158 [249 Cal.Rptr. 435] [lewd
act need not be against will of victim, following dissent in Cicero, supra, 157
Cal.App.3d at pp. 487–488, dis. opn. of Regan, Acting P.J.]; People v. Cardenas
(1994) 21 Cal.App.4th 927, 937, fn. 7 [26 Cal.Rptr.2d 567] [dicta].) If the court
concludes that consent is a defense and there is sufficient evidence, the court has a
sua sponte duty to instruct on the defense. (See consent defense instructions in
CALCRIM No. 1000, Rape or Spousal Rape by Force, Fear, or Threats.)
AUTHORITY
• Elements. Pen. Code, § 288(b)(2) & (c)(2).
Caretaker Defined. Pen. Code, § 288(f)(1) & (g).
• Dependent Person Defined. Pen. Code, § 288(f)(3).
• Duress Defined. People v. Leal (2004) 33 Cal.4th 999, 1004–1010 [16
Cal.Rptr.3d 869]; People v. Pitmon (1985) 170 Cal.App.3d 38, 50 [216
Cal.Rptr. 221]; People v. Cochran (2002) 103 Cal.App.4th 8, 13–14 [126
Cal.Rptr.2d 416].
• Elder Defined. See Pen. Code, § 368(g).
• Menace Defined. See Pen. Code, § 261(c) [in context of rape].
• Actual Arousal Not Required. See People v. McCurdy (1923) 60 Cal.App.
499, 502 [213 P. 59].
• Any Touching With Intent to Arouse. See People v. Martinez (1995) 11
Cal.4th 434, 444, 452 [45 Cal.Rptr.2d 905, 903 P.2d 1037] [disapproving
People v. Wallace (1992) 11 Cal.App.4th 568, 574–580 [14 Cal.Rptr.2d 67] and
its progeny]; see People v. Diaz (1996) 41 Cal.App.4th 1424, 1427–1428 [49
Cal.Rptr.2d 252] [list of examples].
SEX OFFENSES CALCRIM No. 1060
795
0087
• Dependent Person Touching Own Body Parts at Defendant’s Instigation. See
People v. Meacham (1984) 152 Cal.App.3d 142, 152–153 [199 Cal.Rptr. 586]
[“constructive” touching; approving Austin instruction]; People v. Austin (1980)
111 Cal.App.3d 110, 114–115 [168 Cal.Rptr. 401].
• Fear Defined. See People v. Cardenas (1994) 21 Cal.App.4th 927, 939–940
[26 Cal.Rptr.2d 567]; People v. Iniguez (1994) 7 Cal.4th 847 [30 Cal.Rptr.2d
258, 872 P.2d 1183] [in context of rape].
• Force Defined. People v. Cicero (1984) 157 Cal.App.3d 465, 474 [204
Cal.Rptr. 582]; People v. Pitmon (1985) 170 Cal.App.3d 38, 52 [216 Cal.Rptr.
221]; see also People v. Griffın (2004) 33 Cal.4th 1015, 1018–1019 [16
Cal.Rptr.3d 891, 94 P.3d 1089] [discussing Cicero and Pitmon].
• Lewd Defined. See In re Smith (1972) 7 Cal.3d 362, 365 [102 Cal.Rptr. 335,
497 P.2d 807] [in context of indecent exposure]; see Pryor v. Municipal Court
(1979) 25 Cal.3d 238, 256–257, fn. 13 [158 Cal.Rptr. 330, 599 P.2d 636].
Secondary Sources
2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Sex Offenses and
Crimes Against Decency, §§ 37, 41–46.
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 142,
Crimes Against the Person, § 142.21[1][a][iv], [v], [b]–[d] (Matthew Bender).
Couzens & Bigelow, Sex Crimes: California Law and Procedure §§ 12:16, 12:17
(The Rutter Group).
COMMENTARY
The instruction includes definitions of “force” and “fear” because those terms have
meanings in the context of the crime of lewd acts by force that are technical and
may not be readily apparent to jurors. (People v. Pitmon (1985) 170 Cal.App.3d 38,
52 [216 Cal.Rptr. 221] [force]; see People v. Cardenas (1994) 21 Cal.App.4th 927,
939–940 [26 Cal.Rptr.2d 567] [fear]; People v. Iniguez (1994) 7 Cal.4th 847,
856–857 [30 Cal.Rptr.2d 258, 872 P.2d 1183] [fear in context of rape].) The Court
of Appeal has held that the definition of “force” as used in Penal Code section
288(b), subsection (1) (lewd acts by force with a minor) is different from the
meaning of “force” as used in other sex offense statutes. (People v. Cicero (1984)
157 Cal.App.3d 465, 474 [204 Cal.Rptr. 582].) In other sex offense statutes, such
as Penal Code section 261 defining rape, “force” does not have a technical meaning
and there is no requirement to define the term. (People v. Griffın (2004) 33 Cal.4th
1015, 1018–1019 [16 Cal.Rptr.3d 891, 94 P.3d 1089].) In Penal Code section
288(b)(1), on the other hand, “force” means force “substantially different from or
substantially greater than” the physical force normally inherent in the sexual act.
(Id. at p. 1018 [quoting People v. Cicero (1984) 157 Cal.App.3d 465, 474 [204
Cal.Rptr. 582] [emphasis in Griffın].) The court is required to instruct sua sponte
in this special definition of “force.” (People v. Pitmon, supra, 170 Cal.App.3d at p.
52; see also People v. Griffın, supra, 33 Cal.4th at pp. 1026–1028.) It would seem
that this definition of “force” would also apply to the crime of lewd acts with a
CALCRIM No. 1060 SEX OFFENSES
796
0088
dependant person, under Penal Code section 288(b) subsection (2).
The court is not required to instruct sua sponte on the definition of “duress” or
“menace” and Penal Code section 288 does not define either term. (People v.
Pitmon (1985) 170 Cal.App.3d 38, 52 [216 Cal.Rptr. 221] [duress]). Optional
definitions are provided for the court to use at its discretion. The definition of
“duress” is based on People v. Leal (2004) 33 Cal.4th 999, 1004–1010 [16
Cal.Rptr.3d 869, 94 P.3d 1071], and People v. Pitmon (1985) 170 Cal.App.3d 38,
50 [216 Cal.Rptr. 221]. The definition of “menace” is based on the statutory
definitions contained in Penal Code sections 261 and 262 [rape]. (See People v.
Cochran (2002) 103 Cal.App.4th 8, 13–14 [126 Cal.Rptr.2d 416] [using rape
definition in case involving forcible lewd acts].) In People v. Leal, supra, 33
Cal.4th at p. 1007, the court held that the statutory definition of “duress” contained
in Penal Code sections 261 and 262 does not apply to the use of that term in any
other statute. The court did not discuss the statutory definition of “menace.” The
court should consider the Leal opinion before giving the definition of “menace.”
LESSER INCLUDED OFFENSES
• Attempted Lewd Act With Dependent Person. Pen. Code, §§ 664, 288(c)(2).
Attempted Lewd Act by Force With Dependent Person. Pen. Code, §§ 664,
288(b)(2).
• Simple Assault. Pen. Code, § 240.
• Simple Battery. Pen. Code, § 242.
RELATED ISSUES
Developmental Disability
If the dependent person has a developmental disability, arguably there is no sua
sponte duty to define “developmental disability” under Welfare and Institutions
Code section 4512(a) or Penal Code section 1370.1(a)(1). The Legislature did not
intend to limit this phrase in other code sections to such technical medical or legal
definitions, although a pinpoint instruction may be requested if it helps the jury in
any particular case. (See People v. Mobley (1999) 72 Cal.App.4th 761, 781–783
[85 Cal.Rptr.2d 474] [in context of oral copulation of disabled person].)
1061–1069. Reserved for Future Use
SEX OFFENSES CALCRIM No. 1060
797
0089