California Criminal Jury Instructions (CALCRIM) (2017)
1402. Gang-Related Firearm EnhancementDownload PDF
1402.Gang-Related Firearm Enhancement (Pen. Code,
If you ﬁnd the defendant guilty of the crime[s] charged in Count[s]
[,] [or of attempting to commit (that/those) crime[s]] [or the
lesser crime[s] of <insert name[s] of alleged lesser
offense[s]>] and you ﬁnd that the defendant committed (that/those)
crime[s] for the beneﬁt of, at the direction of, or in association with a
criminal street gang with the intent to promote, further, or assist in any
criminal conduct by gang members, you must then decide whether[, for
each crime,] the People have proved the additional allegation that one of
the principals (personally used/personally and intentionally discharged)
a ﬁrearm during that crime [and caused (great bodily injury/ [or]
death)]. [You must decide whether the People have proved this
allegation for each crime and return a separate ﬁnding for each crime.]
To prove this allegation, the People must prove that:
[1.] Someone who was a principal in the crime personally (used/
discharged) a ﬁrearm during the commission [or attempted
commission] of the <insert appropriate crime listed in
Penal Code section 12022.53(a)(./;)
[2. That person intended to discharge the ﬁrearm(./;)]
3. That person’s act caused (great bodily injury to/ [or] the death
of) another person [who was not an accomplice to the crime].]
A person is a principal in a crime if he or she directly commits [or
attempts to commit] the crime or if he or she aids and abets someone
else who commits [or attempts to commit] the crime.
[A ﬁrearm is any device designed to be used as a weapon, from which a
projectile is discharged or expelled through a barrel by the force of an
explosion or other form of combustion.]
[The term ﬁrearm is deﬁned in another instruction.]
[A ﬁrearm does not need to be in working order if it was designed to
shoot and appears capable of shooting.] [A ﬁrearm does not need to be
[A principal personally uses a ﬁrearm if he or she intentionally does any
of the following:
1. Displays the ﬁrearm in a menacing manner.
2. Hits someone with the ﬁrearm.
3. Fires the ﬁrearm.]
[Great bodily injury means signiﬁcant or substantial physical injury. It is
an injury that is greater than minor or moderate harm.]
[An act causes (great bodily injury/ [or] death) if the (injury/ [or] death)
is the direct, natural, and probable consequence of the act and the
(injury/ [or] death) would not have happened without the act. A natural
and probable consequence is one that a reasonable person would know is
likely to happen if nothing unusual intervenes. In deciding whether a
consequence is natural and probable, consider all the circumstances
established by the evidence.]
[There may be more than one cause of (great bodily injury/ [or] death).
An act causes (injury/ [or] death) only if it is a substantial factor in
causing the (injury/ [or] death). A substantial factor is more than a
trivial or remote factor. However, it does not need to be the only factor
that causes the (injury/ [or] death).]
[A person is an accomplice if he or she is subject to prosecution for the
identical crime charged against the defendant. A person is subject to
prosecution if he or she committed the crime or if:
1. He or she knew of the criminal purpose of the person who
committed the crime;
2. He or she intended to, and did in fact, (aid, facilitate, promote,
encourage, or instigate the commission of the crime/ [or]
participate in a criminal conspiracy to commit the crime).]
<If there is an issue in the case over whether the defendant used the ﬁrearm
“during the commission of” the offense, see Bench Notes.>
The People have the burden of proving each allegation beyond a
reasonable doubt. If the People have not met this burden, you must ﬁnd
that the allegation has not been proved.
New January 2006; Revised June 2007, April 2010, February 2012
The court has a sua sponte duty to give this instruction deﬁning the elements of
the enhancement. (Apprendi v. New Jersey (2000) 530 U.S. 466, 490 [120 S.Ct.
2348, 147 L.Ed.2d 435].)
CRIMINAL STREET GANGS CALCRIM No. 1402
In order for the defendant to receive an enhancement under Penal Code section
12022.53(e), the jury must ﬁnd both that the defendant committed a felony for the
beneﬁt of a street gang and that a principal used or intentionally discharged a
ﬁrearm in the offense. Thus, the court must give CALCRIM No. 1401, Felony or
Misdemeanor Committed for Beneﬁt of Criminal Street Gang, with this instruction
and the jury must ﬁnd both allegations have been proved before the enhancement
may be applied.
In this instruction, the court must select the appropriate options based on whether
the prosecution alleges that the principal used the ﬁrearm, intentionally discharged
the ﬁrearm, and/or intentionally discharged the ﬁrearm causing great bodily injury
or death. The court should review CALCRIM Nos. 3146, 3148, and 3149 for
guidance. Give the bracketed deﬁnition of “personally used” only if the prosecution
speciﬁcally alleges that the principal “personally used” the ﬁrearm. Do not give the
bracketed deﬁnition of “personally used” if the prosecution alleges intentional
discharge or intentional discharge causing great bodily injury or death.
If causation is at issue, the court has a sua sponte duty to instruct on proximate
cause (People v. Jomo K. Bland (2002) 28 Cal.4th 313, 335 [121 Cal.Rptr.2d 546,
48 P.3d 1107]); give the bracketed paragraph that begins with “An act causes
. . . .” If there is evidence of multiple potential causes, the court should also give
the bracketed paragraph that begins with “There may be more than one cause
. . . .” (Id. at pp. 335–338.)
The court should give the bracketed deﬁnition of “ﬁrearm” unless the court has
already given the deﬁnition in other instructions. In such cases, the court may give
the bracketed sentence stating that the term is deﬁned elsewhere.
If the case involves an issue of whether the principal used the weapon “during the
commission of” the offense, the court may give CALCRIM No. 3261, In
Commission of Felony: Deﬁned-Escape Rule. (See People v. Jones (2001) 25
Cal.4th 98, 109 [104 Cal.Rptr.2d 753, 18 P.3d 674]; People v. Masbruch (1996) 13
Cal.4th 1001, 1014 [55 Cal.Rptr.2d 760, 920 P.2d 705]; People v. Taylor (1995) 32
Cal.App.4th 578, 582 [38 Cal.Rptr.2d 127].)
If, in the elements, the court gives the bracketed phrase “who was not an
accomplice to the crime,” the court should also give the bracketed deﬁnition of
“accomplice.” (People v. Verlinde (2002) 100 Cal.App.4th 1146, 1167–1168 [123
Cal.Rptr.2d 322].) Additional paragraphs providing further explanation of the
deﬁnition of “accomplice” are contained in CALCRIM No. 334, Accomplice
Testimony Must Be Corroborated: Dispute Whether Witness Is Accomplice. The
court should review that instruction and determine whether any of these additional
paragraphs should be given.
• Enhancement. Pen. Code, § 12022.53(e).
•Vicarious Liability Under Subdivision (e). People v. Garcia (2002) 28 Cal.4th
1166, 1171 [124 Cal.Rptr.2d 464, 52 P.3d 648]; People v. Gonzales (2001) 87
CALCRIM No. 1402 CRIMINAL STREET GANGS
Cal.App.4th 1, 12 [104 Cal.Rptr.2d 247].
• Principal Deﬁned. Pen. Code, § 31.
• Firearm Deﬁned. Pen. Code, § 16520.
• Personally Uses. People v. Marvin Bland (1995) 10 Cal.4th 991, 997 [43
Cal.Rptr.2d 77, 898 P.2d 391]; People v. Johnson (1995) 38 Cal.App.4th 1315,
1319–1320 [45 Cal.Rptr.2d 602]; see also Pen. Code, § 1203.06(b)(2).
• “In Commission of” Felony. People v. Jones (2001) 25 Cal.4th 98, 109–110
[104 Cal.Rptr.2d 753, 18 P.3d 674]; People v. Masbruch (1996) 13 Cal.4th
1001, 1014 [55 Cal.Rptr.2d 760, 920 P.2d 705]; People v. Taylor (1995) 32
Cal.App.4th 578, 582 [38 Cal.Rptr.2d 127].
• Proximate Cause. People v. Jomo K. Bland (2002) 28 Cal.4th 313, 335–338
[121 Cal.Rptr.2d 546, 48 P.3d 1107].
• Accomplice Deﬁned. See Pen. Code, § 1111; People v. Verlinde (2002) 100
Cal.App.4th 1146, 1167–1168 [123 Cal.Rptr.2d 322]; People v. Stankewitz
(1990) 51 Cal.3d 72, 90–91 [270 Cal.Rptr. 817, 793 P.2d 23].
3 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Punishment, § 322.
5Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Criminal Trial, § 644.
5 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 91,
Sentencing, § 91.30 (Matthew Bender).
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 144,
Crimes Against Order, § 144.03 (Matthew Bender).
Principal Need Not Be Convicted
It is not necessary that the principal who actually used or discharged the ﬁrearm be
convicted. (People v. Garcia (2002) 28 Cal.4th 1166, 1176 [124 Cal.Rptr.2d 464,
52 P.3d 648].)
Defendant Need Not Know Principal Armed
For an enhancement charged under Penal Code section 12022.53(e) where the
prosecution is pursuing vicarious liability, it is not necessary for the prosecution to
prove that the defendant knew that the principal intended to use or discharge a
ﬁrearm. (People v. Gonzales (2001) 87 Cal.App.4th 1, 14–15 [104 Cal.Rptr.2d
See the Related Issues sections of CALCRIM Nos. 3146–3149.
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