California Criminal Jury Instructions (CALCRIM) (2017)
1532. Unlawfully Causing a FireDownload PDF
1532.Unlawfully Causing a Fire (Pen. Code, § 452)
The defendant is charged [in Count ] with unlawfully causing a
ﬁre [in violation of Penal Code section 452].
To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must
1. The defendant set ﬁre to[,] [or] burned[,] [or caused the burning
of] (a structure/forest land/property);
2. The defendant did so recklessly.
<Alternative A—Recklessness: General Deﬁnition>
[A person acts recklessly when (1) he or she is aware that his or her
actions present a substantial and unjustiﬁable risk of causing a ﬁre, (2)
he or she ignores that risk, and (3) ignoring the risk is a gross deviation
from what a reasonable person would have done in the same situation.]
<Alternative B—Recklessness: Voluntary Intoxication>
[A person acts recklessly when (1) he or she does an act that presents a
substantial and unjustiﬁable risk of causing a ﬁre but (2) he or she is
unaware of the risk because he or she is voluntarily intoxicated.
Intoxication is voluntary if the person willingly used any intoxicating
drink, drug, or other substance knowing that it could produce an
To set ﬁre to or burn means to damage or destroy with ﬁre either all or
part of something, no matter how small the part.
[A structure is any (building/bridge/tunnel/power plant/commercial or
[Forest land means brush-covered land, cut-over land, forest, grasslands,
[Property means personal property or land other than forest land.]
[A person does not unlawfully cause a ﬁre if the only thing burned is his
or her own personal property, unless he or she acts with the intent to
defraud, or the ﬁre also injures someone else or someone else’s
structure, forest land, or property.]
[Arson and unlawfully causing a ﬁre require different mental states. For
arson, a person must act willfully and maliciously. For unlawfully
causing a ﬁre, a person must act recklessly.]
New January 2006
The court has a sua sponte duty to give an instruction deﬁning the elements of the
If the prosecution’s theory is that the defendant did not set the ﬁre but “caused” the
ﬁre, the court has a sua sponte duty to instruct on aiding and abetting. (People v.
Sarkis (1990) 222 Cal.App.3d 23, 28 [272 Cal.Rptr. 34].) See CALCRIM Nos.
Depending upon the theory of recklessness the prosecutor is alleging, the court
should instruct with alternative A or B.
If the defendant is also charged with arson, the court may wish to give the last
bracketed paragraph, which explains the difference in intent between unlawfully
causing a ﬁre and arson. (People v. Hooper (1986) 181 Cal.App.3d 1174, 1182
[226 Cal.Rptr. 810], disapproved of in People v. Barton (1995) 12 Cal.4th 186 [47
Cal.Rptr.2d 569, 906 P.2d 531] on the point that defense counsel’s objection to
instruction on lesser included offense constituted invited error; People v. Schwartz
(1992) 2 Cal.App.4th 1319, 1324 [3 Cal.Rptr.2d 816].)
If it is also alleged that the ﬁre caused great bodily injury or burned an inhabited
structure or property, see CALCRIM No. 1530, Unlawfully Causing a Fire: Great
Bodily Injury, and CALCRIM No. 1531, Unlawfully Causing a Fire: Inhabited
• Elements. Pen. Code, § 452.
•Structure, Forest Land Deﬁned. Pen. Code, § 450.
• Difference Between This Crime and Arson. People v. Hooper (1986) 181
Cal.App.3d 1174, 1182 [226 Cal.Rptr. 810].
• To Burn Deﬁned. People v. Haggerty (1873) 46 Cal. 354, 355; In re Jesse L.
(1990) 221 Cal.App.3d 161, 166–167 [270 Cal.Rptr. 389].
2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Crimes Against
Property, §§ 238–242.
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 143,
Crimes Against Property, § 143.11 (Matthew Bender).
CALCRIM No. 1532 ARSON
See the Related Issues section under CALCRIM No. 1515, Arson.
1533–1549. Reserved for Future Use
ARSON CALCRIM No. 1532