California Criminal Jury Instructions (CALCRIM) (2017)
1926. Possession of Counterfeit Government, Public, or Corporate SealDownload PDF
1926.Possession of Counterfeit Government, Public, or
Corporate Seal (Pen. Code, § 472)
The defendant is charged [in Count ] with possessing a
counterfeit (government/public/corporate) seal [or an impression of a
counterfeit (government/public/corporate) seal] [in violation of Penal
Code section 472].
To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must
1. The defendant possessed a counterfeit seal [or an impression of a
counterfeit seal] of (this state[,]/ [or] a legally authorized public
officer[,]/ [or] a court of record[,]/ [or] a corporation[,]/ [or] a
public seal legally authorized or recognized by any state,
government, or country);
2. The defendant knew that the seal [or impression of the seal] was
3. The defendant willfully concealed the fact that the seal [or
impression of the seal] was counterfeit;
4. When the defendant possessed the seal [or impression of the
seal], (he/she) intended to defraud.
Someone commits an act willfully when he or she does it willingly or on
Someone intends to defraud if he or she intends to deceive another
person either to cause a loss of (money[,]/ [or] goods[,]/ [or] services[,]/
[or] something [else] of value), or to cause damage to, a legal, ﬁnancial,
or property right.
[For the purpose of this instruction, a person includes (a governmental
agency/a corporation/a business/an association/the body politic).]
[It is not necessary that anyone actually be defrauded or actually suffer
a ﬁnancial, legal, or property loss as a result of the defendant’s acts.]
[Two or more people may possess something at the same time.]
[A person does not have to actually hold or touch something to possess
it. It is enough if the person has (control over it/ [or] the right to
control it), either personally or through another person.]
[The People allege that the defendant possessed the following items:
<insert description of each seal or impression when multiple
items alleged>. You may not ﬁnd the defendant guilty unless you all
agree that the People have proved that the defendant possessed at least
one of these items and you all agree on which item (he/she) possessed.]
New January 2006
The court has a sua sponte duty to give this instruction deﬁning the elements of
If the prosecution alleges under a single count that the defendant possessed
multiple forged items, the court has a sua sponte duty to instruct on unanimity.
(See People v. Sutherland (1993) 17 Cal.App.4th 602, 619, fn. 6 [21 Cal.Rptr.2d
752].) Give the last bracketed paragraph, inserting the items alleged. (See also
Bench Notes to CALCRIM No. 3500, Unanimity, discussing when instruction on
unanimity is and is not required.)
Give the bracketed sentence that begins with “For the purpose of this instruction” if
the evidence shows an intent to defraud an entity or association rather than a
natural person. (Pen. Code, § 8.)
Give the bracketed sentence that begins with “It is not necessary” if the evidence
shows that the defendant did not succeed in defrauding anyone. (People v. Morgan
(1956) 140 Cal.App.2d 796, 801 [296 P.2d 75].)
• Elements. Pen. Code, § 472.
•Intent to Defraud. People v. Pugh (2002) 104 Cal.App.4th 66, 72 [127
Cal.Rptr.2d 770]; People v. Gaul-Alexander (1995) 32 Cal.App.4th 735, 745 [38
• Intent to Defraud Entity. Pen. Code, § 8.
• Unanimity Instruction If Multiple Items. People v. Sutherland (1993) 17
Cal.App.4th 602, 619, fn. 6 [21 Cal.Rptr.2d 752].
2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Crimes Against
Property, § 155.
4 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 85,
Submission to Jury and Verdict, § 85.02[a][i] (Matthew Bender).
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 143,
Crimes Against Property, § 143.04 (Matthew Bender).
LESSER INCLUDED OFFENSES
• Attempted Possession of Counterfeit Seal. Pen. Code, §§ 664, 472.
1927–1929. Reserved for Future Use
CALCRIM No. 1926 CRIMINAL WRITINGS AND FRAUD