CALCRIM No. 2140. Failure to Perform Duty Following Accident: Death or Injury - Defendant Driver (Veh. Code, §§ 20001, 20003 & 20004)
Judicial Council of California Criminal Jury Instructions (2023 edition)Download PDF
B. FAILURE TO PERFORM DUTY FOLLOWING
(i) Death or Injury
2140.Failure to Perform Duty Following Accident: Death or
Injury - Defendant Driver (Veh. Code, §§ 20001, 20003 & 20004)
The defendant is charged [in Count ] with failing to perform a
legal duty following a vehicle accident that caused (death/ [or]
[permanent] injury) to another person [in violation of
<insert appropriate code section[s]>].
To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must
1. While driving, the defendant was involved in a vehicle accident;
2. The accident caused (the death of/ [or] [permanent, serious]
injury to) someone else;
3. The defendant knew that (he/she) had been involved in an
accident that injured another person [or knew from the nature of
the accident that it was probable that another person had been
4. The defendant willfully failed to perform one or more of the
(a) To immediately stop at the scene of the accident;
(b) To provide reasonable assistance to any person injured in the
(c) To give to (the person struck/the driver or occupants of any
vehicle collided with) or any peace officer at the scene of the
accident all of the following information:
•The defendant’s name and current residence address;
•The registration number of the vehicle (he/she) was
<Give following sentence if defendant not owner of vehicle.>
•The name and current residence address of the owner of
the vehicle if the defendant is not the owner(;/.)]
<Give following sentence if occupants of defendant’s vehicle were
•The names and current residence addresses of any
occupants of the defendant’s vehicle who were injured in
(d) When requested, to show (his/her) driver’s license if available
to (the person struck/the driver or occupants of any vehicle
collided with) or any peace officer at the scene of the
<Give element 4(e) if accident caused death.>
(e) The driver must, without unnecessary delay, notify either the
police department of the city where the accident happened or
the local headquarters of the California Highway Patrol if the
accident happened in an unincorporated area.]
Someone commits an act willfully when he or she does it willingly or on
purpose. It is not required that he or she intend to break the law, hurt
someone else, or gain any advantage.
The duty to immediately stop means that the driver must stop his or her
vehicle as soon as reasonably possible under the circumstances.
To provide reasonable assistance means the driver must determine what
assistance, if any, the injured person needs and make a reasonable effort
to see that such assistance is provided, either by the driver or someone
else. Reasonable assistance includes transporting anyone who has been
injured for medical treatment, or arranging the transportation for such
treatment, if it is apparent that treatment is necessary or if an injured
person requests transportation. [The driver is not required to provide
assistance that is unnecessary or that is already being provided by
someone else. However, the requirement that the driver provide
assistance is not excused merely because bystanders are on the scene or
could provide assistance.]
The driver of a vehicle must perform the duties listed regardless of who
was injured and regardless of how or why the accident happened. It does
not matter if someone else caused the accident or if the accident was
CALCRIM No. 2140 VEHICLE OFFENSES
You may not find the defendant guilty unless all of you agree that the
People have proved that the defendant failed to perform at least one of
the required duties. You must all agree on which duty the defendant
failed to perform.
[To be involved in a vehicle accident means to be connected with the
accident in a natural or logical manner. It is not necessary for the
driver’s vehicle to collide with another vehicle or person.]
[When providing his or her name and address, the driver is required to
identify himself or herself as the driver of a vehicle involved in the
[A permanent, serious injury is one that permanently impairs the
function or causes the loss of any organ or body part.]
[An accident causes (death/ [or] [permanent, serious] injury) if the
(death/ [or] injury) is the direct, natural, and probable consequence of
the accident and the (death/ [or] injury) would not have happened
without the accident. A natural and probable consequence is one that a
reasonable person would know is likely to happen if nothing unusual
intervenes. In deciding whether a consequence is natural and probable,
consider all the circumstances established by the evidence.]
[There may be more than one cause of (death/ [or] [permanent, serious]
injury). An accident causes (death/ [or] injury) only if it is a substantial
factor in causing the (death/ [or] injury). A substantial factor is more
than a trivial or remote factor. However, it need not be the only factor
that causes the (death/ [or] injury).]
[If the accident caused the defendant to be unconscious or disabled so
that (he/she) was not capable of performing the duties required by law,
then (he/she) did not have to perform those duties at that time.
[However, (he/she) was required to do so as soon as reasonably
New January 2006; Revised August 2006, October 2010, February 2012, March
The court has a sua sponte duty to give this instruction defining the elements of the
crime. Give this instruction if the prosecution alleges that the defendant drove the
vehicle. If the prosecution alleges that the defendant was a nondriving owner present
in the vehicle or other passenger in control of the vehicle, give CALCRIM No.
2141, Failure to Perform Duty Following Accident: Death or Injury - Defendant
Nondriving Owner or Passenger in Control.
VEHICLE OFFENSES CALCRIM No. 2140
If causation is at issue, the court has a sua sponte duty to instruct on proximate
cause. (People v. Bernhardt (1963) 222 Cal.App.2d 567, 590-591 [35 Cal.Rptr.
401].) If the evidence indicates that there was only one cause of death or injury, the
court should give the “direct, natural, and probable” language in the first bracketed
paragraph on causation. If there is evidence of multiple causes of death or injury,
the court should also give the “substantial factor” instruction in the second
bracketed paragraph on causation. (See People v. Autry (1995) 37 Cal.App.4th 351,
363 [43 Cal.Rptr.2d 135]; People v. Pike (1988) 197 Cal.App.3d 732, 746-747 [243
If the defendant is charged under Vehicle Code section 20001(b)(1) with leaving the
scene of an accident causing injury, but not death or permanent, serious injury,
delete the words “death” and “permanent, serious” from the instruction. If the
defendant is charged under Vehicle Code section 20001(b)(2) with leaving the scene
of an accident causing death or permanent, serious injury, use either or both of these
options throughout the instruction, depending on the facts of the case. When
instructing on both offenses, give this instruction using the words “death” and/or
“permanent, serious injury,” and give CALCRIM No. 2142, Failure to Perform Duty
Following Accident: Lesser Included Offense.
Give bracketed element 4(e) only if the accident caused a death.
Give the bracketed portion that begins with “The driver is not required to provide
assistance” if there is an issue over whether assistance by the defendant to the
injured person was necessary in light of aid provided by others. (See People v.
Scheer (1998) 68 Cal.App.4th 1009, 1027 [80 Cal.Rptr.2d 676]; People v. Scofield
(1928) 203 Cal. 703, 708 [265 P. 914]; see also discussion in the Related Issues
Give the bracketed paragraph defining “involved in a vehicle accident” if that is an
issue in the case.
Give the bracketed paragraph stating that “the driver is required to identify himself
or herself as the driver” if there is evidence that the defendant stopped and
identified himself or herself but not in a way that made it apparent to the other
parties that the defendant was the driver. (People v. Kroncke (1999) 70 Cal.App.4th
1535, 1546 [83 Cal.Rptr.2d 493].)
Give the bracketed paragraph that begins with “If the accident caused the defendant
to be unconscious” if there is sufficient evidence that the defendant was unconscious
or disabled at the scene of the accident.
On request, give CALCRIM No. 2241, Driver and Driving Defined.
• Elements. Veh. Code, §§ 20001, 20003 & 20004.
• Sentence for Death or Permanent Injury. Veh. Code, § 20001(b)(2).
• Sentence for Injury. Veh. Code, § 20001(b)(1).
• Knowledge of Accident and Injury. People v. Holford (1965) 63 Cal.2d 74,
CALCRIM No. 2140 VEHICLE OFFENSES
79-80 [45 Cal.Rptr. 167, 403 P.2d 423]; People v. Carter (1966) 243 Cal.App.2d
239, 241 [52 Cal.Rptr. 207]; People v. Hamilton (1978) 80 Cal.App.3d 124,
133-134 [145 Cal.Rptr. 429].
• Willful Failure to Perform Duty. People v. Crouch (1980) 108 Cal.App.3d Supp.
14, 21-22 [166 Cal.Rptr. 818].
• Duty Applies Regardless of Fault for Accident. People v. Scofield (1928) 203
Cal. 703, 708 [265 P. 914].
• Involved Defined. People v. Bammes (1968) 265 Cal.App.2d 626, 631 [71
Cal.Rptr. 415]; People v. Sell (1950) 96 Cal.App.2d 521, 523 [215 P.2d 771].
• Immediately Stopped Defined. People v. Odom (1937) 19 Cal.App.2d 641,
646-647 [66 P.2d 206].
• Duty to Render Assistance. People v. Scofield (1928) 203 Cal. 703, 708 [265 P.
914]; People v. Scheer (1998) 68 Cal.App.4th 1009, 1027 [80 Cal.Rptr.2d 676].
• Permanent, Serious Injury Defined. Veh. Code, § 20001(d).
• Statute Does Not Violate Fifth Amendment Privilege. California v. Byers (1971)
402 U.S. 424, 434 [91 S.Ct. 1535, 29 L.Ed.2d 9].
• Must Identify Self as Driver. People v. Kroncke (1999) 70 Cal.App.4th 1535,
1546 [83 Cal.Rptr.2d 493].
• Unanimity Instruction Required. People v. Scofield (1928) 203 Cal. 703, 710
[265 P. 914].
• Unconscious Driver Unable to Comply at Scene. People v. Flores (1996) 51
Cal.App.4th 1199, 1204 [59 Cal.Rptr.2d 637].
• Offense May Occur on Private Property. People v. Stansberry (1966) 242
Cal.App.2d 199, 204 [51 Cal.Rptr. 403].
• Duty Applies to Injured Passenger in Defendant’s Vehicle. People v. Kroncke
(1999) 70 Cal.App.4th 1535, 1546 [83 Cal.Rptr.2d 493].
LESSER INCLUDED OFFENSES
• Failure to Stop Following Accident - Injury. Veh. Code, § 20001(b)(1).
• Misdemeanor Failure to Stop Following Accident - Property Damage. Veh. Code,
§ 20002; but see People v. Carter (1966) 243 Cal.App.2d 239, 242-243 [52
Constructive Knowledge of Injury
“[K]nowledge may be imputed to the driver of a vehicle where the fact of personal
injury is visible and obvious or where the seriousness of the collision would lead a
VEHICLE OFFENSES CALCRIM No. 2140
reasonable person to assume there must have been resulting injuries.” (People v.
Carter (1966) 243 Cal.App.2d 239, 241 [52 Cal.Rptr. 207] [citations omitted].)
Accusatory Pleading Alleged Property Damage
If accusatory pleading alleges property damage, Veh. Code, § 20002, see People v.
Carter (1966) 243 Cal.App.2d 239, 242-243 [52 Cal.Rptr. 207].
Failure to render reasonable assistance to an injured person constitutes a violation of
the statute. (People v. Limon (1967) 252 Cal.App.2d 575, 578 [60 Cal.Rptr. 448].)
“In this connection it must be noted that the statute requires that necessary
assistance be rendered.” (People v. Scofield (1928) 203 Cal. 703, 708 [265 P. 914]
[emphasis in original].) In People v. Scofield, supra, the court held that where other
people were caring for the injured person, the defendant’s “assistance was not
necessary.” (Id. at p. 709 [emphasis in original].) An instruction limited to the
statutory language on rendering assistance “is inappropriate where such assistance
by the driver is unnecessary, as in the case where paramedics have responded within
moments following the accident.” (People v. Scheer (1998) 68 Cal.App.4th 1009,
1027 [80 Cal.Rptr.2d 676].) However, “the driver’s duty to render necessary
assistance under Vehicle Code section 20003, at a minimum, requires that the driver
first ascertain what assistance, if any, the injured person needs, and then the driver
must make a reasonable effort to see that such assistance is provided, whether
through himself or third parties.” (Ibid.) The presence of bystanders who offer
assistance is not alone sufficient to relieve the defendant of the duty to render aid.
(Ibid.) “[T]he ‘reasonable assistance’ referred to in the statute might be the
summoning of aid,” rather than the direct provision of first aid by the defendant.
(People v. Limon (1967) 252 Cal.App.2d 575, 578 [60 Cal.Rptr. 448].)
2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (4th ed. 2012) Crimes Against Public
Peace and Welfare, §§ 313-319.
5 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 91,
Sentencing, §§ 91.60[b][ii], 91.81[d] (Matthew Bender).
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 140,
Challenges to Crimes, § 140.03, Ch. 145, Narcotics and Alcohol Offenses,
§ 145.02[3A][a] (Matthew Bender).
CALCRIM No. 2140 VEHICLE OFFENSES