in a conspicuous place on the vehicle or other damaged property.
He or she must then also, without unnecessary delay, notify
either the police department of the city where the accident
happened or the local headquarters of the California Highway
Patrol if the accident happened in an unincorporated area.
Someone commits an act willfully when he or she does it willingly or on
purpose. It is not required that he or she intend to break the law, hurt
someone else, or gain any advantage.
The duty to immediately stop means that the (owner/passenger in
control) must cause the vehicle he or she is a passenger in to stop as
soon as reasonably possible under the circumstances.
The (owner/passenger in control) of a vehicle must perform the duties
listed regardless of how or why the accident happened. It does not
matter if someone else caused the accident or if the accident was
You may not ﬁnd the defendant guilty unless all of you agree that the
People have proved that the defendant failed to perform at least one of
the required duties. You must all agree on which duty the defendant
failed to perform.
[To be involved in an accident means to be connected with the accident
in a natural or logical manner. It is not necessary for the vehicle to
collide with another vehicle or person.]
[The property damaged may include any vehicle other than the one the
defendant allegedly (owned/was a passenger in).]
[An accident causes property damage if the property damage is the
direct, natural, and probable consequence of the accident and the
damage would not have happened without the accident. A natural and
probable consequence is one that a reasonable person would know is
likely to happen if nothing unusual intervenes. In deciding whether a
consequence is natural and probable, consider all the circumstances
established by the evidence.]
[There may be more than one cause of property damage. An accident
causes damage only if it is a substantial factor in causing the damage. A
substantial factor is more than a trivial or remote factor. However, it
need not be the only factor that causes the property damage.]
[If the accident caused the defendant to be unconscious or disabled so
that (he/she) was not capable of performing the duties required by law,
then (he/she) did not have to perform those duties at that time.
[However, (he/she) was required to do so as soon as reasonably
[If the defendant told the driver to stop and made a reasonable effort to
CALCRIM No. 2151 VEHICLE OFFENSES