2351. Offering to Sell, Furnish, etc., Marijuana
The defendant is charged [in Count ______] with offering to (sell/ furnish/ administer/import) marijuana, a controlled substance.
To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must prove that:
1. The defendant offered to (sell/furnish/administer/import into California) marijuana, a controlled substance;
2. When the defendant made the offer, (he/she) intended to (sell/furnish/administer/import) the controlled substance.
[Selling for the purpose of this instruction means exchanging marijuana for money, services, or anything of value.]
[A person administers a substance if he or she applies it directly to the body of another person by injection, or by any other means, or causes the other person to inhale, ingest, or otherwise consume the substance.]
[Marijuana means all or part of the Cannabis sativa L. plant, whether growing or not, including the seeds and resin extracted from any part of the plant. [It also includes every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the plant, its seeds, or resin.] [It does not include the mature stalks of the plant; fiber produced from the stalks; oil or cake made from the seeds of the plant; any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the mature stalks (except the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake; or the sterilized seed of the plant, which is incapable of germination.]]
[The People do not need to prove that the defendant actually possessed the marijuana.]
The court has a sua sponte duty to give this instruction defining the elements of the crime.
When instructing on the definition of "marijuana," the court may choose to give just the first bracketed sentence or may give the first bracketed sentence with either or both of the bracketed sentences following. The second and third sentences should be given if requested and relevant based on the evidence. (See Health & Saf. Code, § 11018 [defining marijuana].)
Elements. Health & Saf. Code, § 11360; People v. Van Alstyne (1975) 46 Cal.App.3d 900, 906 [121 Cal.Rptr. 363].
Specific Intent. People v. Jackson (1963) 59 Cal.2d 468, 469-470 [30 Cal.Rptr. 468, 381 P.2d 1].
Knowledge. People v. Romero (1997) 55 Cal.App.4th 147, 151-153, 157, fn. 3 [64 Cal.Rptr.2d 16]; People v. Winston (1956) 46 Cal.2d 151, 158 [293 P.2d 40].
Selling. People v. Lazenby (1992) 6 Cal.App.4th 1842, 1845 [8 Cal.Rptr.2d 541].
Administering. Health & Saf. Code, § 11002.
Administering Does Not Include Self-Administering. People v. Label (1974) 43 Cal.App.3d 766, 770-771 [119 Cal.Rptr. 522].
Compassionate Use Not a Defense. People v. Galambos (2002) 104 Cal.App.4th 1147, 1165-1167 [128 Cal.Rptr.2d 844]; People ex rel. Lungren v. Peron (1997) 59 Cal.App.4th 1383, 1389 [70 Cal.Rptr.2d 20].
2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Crimes Against Public Peace and Welfare, §§ 94-100.
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 145, Narcotics and Alcohol Offenses, § 145.01[a], [g]-[j], [a], [a.1] (Matthew Bender).
Lesser Included Offenses
Simple Possession of Marijuana. Health & Saf. Code, § 11357.
Possession for Sale of Marijuana. Health & Saf. Code, § 11359.
No Requirement That Defendant Delivered or Possessed Drugs
A defendant may be convicted of offering to sell even if there is no evidence that he or she delivered or ever possessed any controlled substance. (People v. Jackson (1963) 59 Cal.2d 468, 469 [30 Cal.Rptr. 329, 381 P.2d 1]; People v. Brown (1960) 55 Cal.2d 64, 68 [9 Cal.Rptr. 816, 357 P.2d 1072].)
Medical Marijuana Not a Defense to Sales or Offering to Sell
The medical marijuana defense provided by Health and Safety Code section 11362.5 is not available to a charge of sales or offering to sell under Health and Safety Code section 11360. (People v. Galambos (2002) 104 Cal.App.4th 1147, 1165-1167 [128 Cal.Rptr.2d 844]; People ex rel. Lungren v. Peron (1997) 59 Cal.App.4th 1383, 1389 [70 Cal.Rptr.2d 20].) The defense is not available even if the marijuana is provided to someone permitted to use marijuana for medical reasons (People v. Galambos, supra, 104 Cal.App.4th at pp. 1165-1167) or if the marijuana is provided free of charge (People ex rel. Lungren v. Peron, supra, 59 Cal.App.4th at p. 1389). Evidence of a compassionate use defense may be admissible if the defendant denies intent to sell and asserts such a defense to simple possession or cultivation. (See People v. Galambos, supra, 104 Cal.App.4th at p. 1165 [trial court properly instructed on medical marijuana defense to simple possession and cultivation for personal use]; People v. Wright (2004) 121 Cal.App.4th 1356 [18 Cal.Rptr.3d 220], review granted Dec. 1, 2004, S128442 [Supreme Court granted review on issue of whether evidence of compassionate use admissible in case where possession for sale charged].) There is no case law on whether compassionate use may be raised as a defense to "furnishing" or "administering" marijuana.
(New January 2006)