CALCRIM No. 2351. Offering to Sell, Furnish, etc., Cannabis (Health & Saf. Code, § 11360)
Judicial Council of California Criminal Jury Instructions (2023 edition)Download PDF
2351.Offering to Sell, Furnish, etc., Cannabis (Health & Saf. Code,
The defendant is charged [in Count ] with offering to (sell[,]/ [or]
furnish[,]/ [or] administer[,]/ [or] import) cannabis, a controlled
substance [in violation of Health and Safety Code section 11360].
To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must
1. The defendant offered to (sell[,]/ [or] furnish[,]/ [or] administer[,]/
[or] import into California) cannabis, a controlled substance;
2. When the defendant made the offer, (he/she) intended to (sell[,]/
[or] furnish[,]/ [or] administer[,]/ [or] import) the controlled
<Sentencing Factor on defendant’s age>
If you find the defendant guilty of this crime [as charged in Count[s]
], you must then decide whether the People have proved the
additional allegation that when the defendant offered to (sell[,]/ [or]
furnish[,]/ [or] administer[,]/ [or] import) cannabis, (he/she) was 18 years
of age or older.
[Under the law, a person becomes one year older as soon as the first
minute of his or her birthday has begun.]
[Selling for the purpose of this instruction means exchanging cannabis
for money, services, or anything of value.]
[A person administers a substance if he or she applies it directly to the
body of another person by injection, or by any other means, or causes
the other person to inhale, ingest, or otherwise consume the substance.]
[Cannabis means all or part of the Cannabis sativa L. plant, whether
growing or not, including the seeds and resin extracted from any part of
the plant. [It also includes every compound, manufacture, salt,
derivative, mixture, or preparation of the plant, its seeds, or resin.]]
<If applicable, give the definition of industrial hemp: Health & Saf. Code,
[Cannabis does not include industrial hemp. Industrial hemp means a
fiber or oilseed crop, or both, that only contain types of the plant
Cannabis sativa L. with no more than three-tenths of 1 percent
tetrahydrocannabinol from the dried flowering tops, whether growing or
not. Industrial hemp may include the seeds of the plant; the resin
extracted from any part of the plant; and every compound, manufacture,
salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the plant, its seeds or resin
produced from the seeds.]
[The People do not need to prove that the defendant actually possessed
New January 2006; Revised December 2008, February 2015, September 2018
The court has a sua sponte duty to give this instruction defining the elements of the
If any of the penalty allegations under Health & Safety Code section 11360(a)(3)
are charged, give CALCRIM No. 2364, as appropriate.
Defenses - Instructional Duty
If a medical cannabis defense applies under the Compassionate Use Act or the
Medical Marijuana Program Act (See Health & Saf. Code, §§ 11362.5, 11362.775.),
the burden is on the defendant to produce sufficient evidence to raise a reasonable
doubt that the conduct was lawful. (People v. Mower (2002) 28 Cal.4th 457, 470
[122 Cal.Rptr.2d 326, 49 P.3d 1067]; People v. Jackson (2012) 210 Cal.App.4th
525, 538-539 [148 Cal.Rptr.3d 375].) If the defendant introduces substantial
evidence, sufficient to raise a reasonable doubt that the conduct may have been
lawful, the court has a sua sponte duty to give the relevant defense instruction:
CALCRIM No. 3412, Compassionate Use Defense, or CALCRIM No. 3413,
Collective or Cooperative Cultivation Defense.
Give CALCRIM No. 3415, Legal Use Defense, on request if supported by
• Elements. Health & Saf. Code, § 11360; People v. Van Alstyne (1975) 46
Cal.App.3d 900, 906 [121 Cal.Rptr. 363].
• Specific Intent. People v. Jackson (1963) 59 Cal.2d 468, 469-470 [30 Cal.Rptr.
329, 381 P.2d 1].
• Knowledge. People v. Romero (1997) 55 Cal.App.4th 147, 151-153, 157, fn. 3
[64 Cal.Rptr.2d 16]; People v. Winston (1956) 46 Cal.2d 151, 158 [293 P.2d 40].
• Selling. People v. Lazenby (1992) 6 Cal.App.4th 1842, 1845 [8 Cal.Rptr.2d 541].
• Administering. Health & Saf. Code, § 11002.
• Administering Does Not Include Self-Administering. People v. Label (1974) 43
Cal.App.3d 766, 770-771 [119 Cal.Rptr. 522].
• Compassionate Use Defense Generally. People v. Wright (2006) 40 Cal.4th 81
CALCRIM No. 2351 CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES
[51 Cal.Rptr.3d 80, 146 P.3d 531]; People v. Urziceanu (2005) 132 Cal.App.4th
747 [33 Cal.Rptr.3d 859]; People v. Galambos (2002) 104 Cal.App.4th 1147,
1165-1167 [128 Cal.Rptr.2d 844]; People ex rel. Lungren v. Peron (1997) 59
Cal.App.4th 1383, 1389 [70 Cal.Rptr.2d 20].
• Medical Marijuana Program Act Defense. People v. Jackson (2012) 210
Cal.App.4th 525, 538-539 [148 Cal.Rptr.3d 375].
• Definition of Cannabis. Health & Saf. Code, § 11018.
• Definition of Industrial Hemp. Health & Saf. Code, § 11018.5.
No Requirement That Defendant Delivered or Possessed Drugs
A defendant may be convicted of offering to sell even if there is no evidence that he
or she delivered or ever possessed any controlled substance. (People v. Jackson
(1963) 59 Cal.2d 468, 469 [30 Cal.Rptr. 329, 381 P.2d 1]; People v. Brown (1960)
55 Cal.2d 64, 68 [9 Cal.Rptr. 816, 357 P.2d 1072].)
7 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (4th ed. 2012) Crimes Against Public
Peace and Welfare, § 115.
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 145,
Narcotics and Alcohol Offenses, § 145.01[a], [g]-[j], [a], [a.1] (Matthew
CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES CALCRIM No. 2351