Criminal Law

2376. Simple Possession of Marijuana on School Grounds: Misdemeanor

The defendant is charged [in Count ______] with possessing marijuana, a controlled substance, on the grounds of a school.

To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must prove that:

1. The defendant [unlawfully] possessed a controlled substance;

2. The defendant knew of its presence;

3. The defendant knew of the substance's nature or character as a controlled substance;

4. The controlled substance was marijuana;

5. The marijuana was in a usable amount but not more than 28.5 grams in weight;

6. The defendant was at least 18 years old;


7. The defendant possessed the marijuana on the grounds of or inside a school providing instruction in any grade from kindergarten through 12, when the school was open for classes or school-related programs.

A usable amount is a quantity that is enough to be used by someone as a controlled substance. Useless traces [or debris] are not usable amounts. On the other hand, a usable amount does not have to be enough, in either amount or strength, to affect the user.

[Marijuana means all or part of the Cannabis sativa L. plant, whether growing or not, including the seeds and resin extracted from any part of the plant. [It also includes every compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the plant, its seeds, or resin.] [It does not include the mature stalks of the plant; fiber produced from the stalks; oil or cake made from the seeds of the plant; any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the mature stalks

(except the resin extracted therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake; or the sterilized seed of the plant, which is incapable of germination.]]

[The People do not need to prove that the defendant knew which specific controlled substance (he/she) possessed, only that (he/she) was aware of the substance's presence and that it was a controlled substance.]

[Two or more people may possess something at the same time.]

[A person does not have to actually hold or touch something to possess it. It is enough if the person has (control over it/ [or] the right to control it), either personally or through another person.]

[Agreeing to buy a controlled substance does not, by itself, mean that a person has control over that substance.]

[Under the law, a person becomes one year older as soon as the first minute of his or her birthday has begun.]

<Defense: Compassionate Use>

[Possession of marijuana is not unlawful if authorized by the Compassionate Use Act. The Compassionate Use Act allows a person to possess or cultivate marijuana for personal medical purposes [or as the primary caregiver of a patient with a medical need] when a physician has recommended [or approved] such use. The amount of marijuana possessed must be reasonably related to the patient's current medical needs. The People have the burden of proving beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant was not authorized to possess marijuana for medical purposes. If the People have not met this burden, you must find the defendant not guilty of this crime.

[A primary caregiver is someone who has consistently assumed responsibility for the housing, health, or safety of a patient who may legally possess or cultivate marijuana.]]

Bench Notes

Instructional Duty

The court has a sua sponte duty to give this instruction defining the elements of the crime.

When instructing on the definition of "marijuana," the court may choose to give just the first bracketed sentence or may give the first bracketed sentence with either or both of the bracketed sentences following. The second and third sentences should be given if requested and relevant based on the evidence. (See Health & Saf. Code, § 11018 [defining marijuana].)

Give the bracketed paragraph about calculating age if requested. (Fam. Code, § 6500; In re Harris (1993) 5 Cal.4th 813, 849-850 [21 Cal.Rptr.2d 373, 855 P.2d 391].)

Defenses—Instructional Duty

The medical marijuana defense may be raised to a charge of violating Health and Safety Code section 11357. (See Health & Saf. Code, § 11362.5.) However, there are no cases on whether the defense applies to the charge of possession on school grounds. In general, the burden is on the defendant to produce sufficient evidence to raise a reasonable doubt that possession was lawful. (People v. Mower (2002) 28 Cal.4th 457, 460 [122 Cal.Rptr.2d 326, 49 P.3d 1067]; People v. Jones (2003) 112 Cal.App.4th 341, 350 [4 Cal.Rptr.3d 916] [error to exclude defense where defendant's testimony raised reasonable doubt about physician approval]; see also People v. Tilehkooh (2003) 113 Cal.App.4th 1433, 1441 [7 Cal.Rptr.3d 226] [defendant need not establish "medical necessity"].) If the defendant meets this burden, the court has a sua sponte duty to give the bracketed paragraph of medical marijuana instructions if the court concludes that the defense applies to possession on school grounds.

If the medical marijuana instructions are given, then, in element 1, also give the bracketed word "unlawfully." If the evidence shows that a physician may have "approved" but not "recommended" the marijuana use, give the bracketed phrase "or approved" in the paragraph on medical marijuana. People v. Jones, supra, 112 Cal.App.4th at p. 347 ["approved" distinguished from "recommended"].)


Elements. Health & Saf. Code, §§ 11357(d), 11018; People v. Palaschak (1995) 9 Cal.4th 1236, 1242 [40 Cal.Rptr.2d 722, 893 P.2d 717].

Knowledge. People v. Romero (1997) 55 Cal.App.4th 147, 151-153, 157, fn. 3 [64 Cal.Rptr.2d 16]; People v. Winston (1956) 46 Cal.2d 151, 158 [293 P.2d 40].

Constructive vs. Actual Possession. People v. Barnes (1997) 57 Cal.App.4th 552, 556 [67 Cal.Rptr.2d 162].

Usable Amount. People v. Rubacalba (1993) 6 Cal.4th 62, 65-67 [23 Cal.Rptr.2d 628, 859 P.2d 708]; People v. Piper (1971) 19 Cal.App.3d 248, 250 [96 Cal.Rptr. 643].

Medical Marijuana. Health & Saf. Code, § 11362.5.

Burden of Proof for Defense of Medical Use. People v. Mower (2002) 28 Cal.4th 457, 460 [122 Cal.Rptr.2d 326, 49 P.3d 1067].

Amount Must Be Reasonably Related to Patient's Medical Needs. People v. Trippet (1997) 56 Cal.App.4th 1532, 1550-1551 [66 Cal.Rptr.2d 559].

Secondary Sources

2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Crimes Against Public Peace and Welfare, §§ 64-92.

6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 145, Narcotics and Alcohol Offenses, § 145.01[1][a]-[d], [3][a], [a.1] (Matthew Bender).

(New January 2006)