California Criminal Jury Instructions (CALCRIM) (2017)
2381. Offering to Sell, Furnish, etc., Controlled Substance to MinorDownload PDF
2381.Offering to Sell, Furnish, etc., Controlled Substance to
Minor (Health & Saf. Code, §§ 11353, 11354, 11380(a))
The defendant is charged [in Count ] with offering to
(sell/furnish/administer/give away) <insert type of controlled
substance>, a controlled substance, to someone under 18 years of age [in
violation of <insert appropriate code section[s]>].
To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must
1. The defendant [unlawfully] offered to (sell/furnish/administer/
give away) a controlled substance to <insert name of
2. When the defendant made the offer, (he/she) intended to (sell/
furnish/administer/give away) the controlled substance;
<If the controlled substance is not listed in the schedules set forth in
sections 11054 through 11058 of the Health and Safety Code, give
paragraph 3B and the deﬁnition of analog substance below instead of
3A. The controlled substance was <insert type of
3B. The controlled substance was an analog of <insert
type of controlled substance>;
4. At that time, the defendant was 18 years of age or older;
5. At that time, <insert name of alleged recipient> was
under 18 years of age.
[In order to prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People
must prove that <insert name of analog drug> is an analog
of <insert type of controlled substance>. An analog of a
1. Has a chemical structure substantially similar to the structure of
a controlled substance;
2. Has, is represented as having, or is intended to have a stimulant,
depressant, or hallucinogenic effect on the central nervous system
substantially similar to or greater than the effect of a controlled
[Selling for the purpose of this instruction means exchanging a
controlled substance for money, services, or anything of value.]
[A person administers a substance if he or she applies it directly to the
body of another person by injection, or by any other means, or causes
the other person to inhale, ingest, or otherwise consume the substance.]
[Under the law, a person becomes one year older as soon as the ﬁrst
minute of his or her birthday has begun.]
New January 2006; Revised February 2014
The court has a sua sponte duty to give this instruction deﬁning the elements of
If the defendant is charged with violating Health and Safety Code section 11354(a),
in element 3, the court should replace “18 years of age or older” with “under 18
years of age.”
Give the bracketed paragraph about calculating age if requested. (Fam. Code,
§ 6500; In re Harris (1993) 5 Cal.4th 813, 849–850 [21 Cal.Rptr.2d 373, 855 P.2d
• Elements. Health & Saf. Code, §§ 11353, 11354, 11380(a).
•Age of Defendant Element of Offense. People v. Montalvo (1971) 4 Cal.3d
328, 332 [93 Cal.Rptr. 581, 482 P.2d 205].
• No Defense of Good Faith Belief Offeree Over 18. People v. Williams (1991)
233 Cal.App.3d 407, 410–411 [284 Cal.Rptr. 454]; People v. Lopez (1969) 271
Cal.App.2d 754, 760 [77 Cal.Rptr. 59].
• Speciﬁc Intent. People v. Jackson (1963) 59 Cal.2d 468, 469–470 [30
Cal.Rptr. 329, 381 P.2d 1].
• Administering. Health & Saf. Code, § 11002.
• Deﬁnition of Analog Controlled Substance. People v. Davis (2013) 57 Cal.4th
353, 357, fn. 2 [159 Cal.Rptr.3d 405, 303 P.3d 1179].
• No Finding Necessary for “Expressly Listed” Controlled Substance. People v.
Davis,supra, 57 Cal.4th at p. 362, fn. 5.
2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Crimes Against Public
Peace and Welfare, §§ 103–105.
3 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 73,
Defenses and Justiﬁcations, § 73.06 (Matthew Bender).
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 145,
CALCRIM No. 2381 CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES
Narcotics and Alcohol Offenses, § 145.01[a], [h]–[j], [a] (Matthew Bender).
LESSER INCLUDED OFFENSES
• Offering to Sell to Person Not a Minor. Health & Saf. Code, §§ 11352, 11360,
• Simple Possession of Controlled Substance. Health & Saf. Code, §§ 11350,
11377; People v. Tinajero (1993) 19 Cal.App.4th 1541, 1547 [24 Cal.Rptr.2d
298]; but see People v. Peregrina-Larios (1994) 22 Cal.App.4th 1522, 1524 [28
Cal.Rptr.2d 316] [lesser related offense but not necessarily included].
• Possession for Sale of Controlled Substance. Health & Saf. Code, §§ 11351,
11378; People v. Tinajero,supra, 19 Cal.App.4th at p. 1547; but see People v.
Peregrina-Larios,supra, 22 Cal.App.4th at p. 1524 [lesser related offense but
not necessarily included].
No Requirement That Defendant Delivered or Possessed Drugs
Adefendant may be convicted of offering to sell even if there is no evidence that
he or she delivered or ever possessed any controlled substance. (People v. Jackson
(1963) 59 Cal.2d 468, 469 [30 Cal.Rptr. 329, 381 P.2d 1]; People v. Brown (1960)
55 Cal.2d 64, 68 [9 Cal.Rptr. 816, 357 P.2d 1072].)
See the Related Issues section to CALCRIM No. 2380, Sale, Furnishing, etc., of
Controlled Substance to Minor.
CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES CALCRIM No. 2381