California Criminal Jury Instructions (CALCRIM) (2017)
2391. Offering to Sell, Furnish, etc., Marijuana to MinorDownload PDF
2391.Offering to Sell, Furnish, etc., Marijuana to Minor (Health &
Saf. Code, § 11361)
The defendant is charged [in Count ] with offering to
(sell/furnish/administer/give away) marijuana, a controlled substance, to
someone under (18/14) years of age [in violation of Health and Safety
Code section 11361].
To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must
1. The defendant [unlawfully] offered to (sell/furnish/administer/
give away) marijuana, a controlled substance, to
<insert name of alleged recipient>;
2. When the defendant made the offer, (he/she) intended to (sell/
furnish/administer/give away) the controlled substance;
3. At that time, the defendant was 18 years of age or older;
4. At that time, <insert name of alleged recipient> was
under (18/14) years of age.
[Selling for the purpose of this instruction means exchanging the
marijuana for money, services, or anything of value.]
[A person administers a substance if he or she applies it directly to the
body of another person by injection, or by any other means, or causes
the other person to inhale, ingest, or otherwise consume the substance.]
[Marijuana means all or part of the Cannabis sativa L. plant, whether
growing or not, including the seeds and resin extracted from any part of
the plant. [It also includes every compound, manufacture, salt,
derivative, mixture, or preparation of the plant, its seeds, or resin.] [It
does not include the mature stalks of the plant; ﬁber produced from the
stalks; oil or cake made from the seeds of the plant; any other
compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture, or preparation of the
mature stalks (except the resin extracted there from), ﬁber, oil, or cake;
or the sterilized seed of the plant, which is incapable of germination.]]
[Under the law, a person becomes one year older as soon as the ﬁrst
minute of his or her birthday has begun.]
[The People do not need to prove that the defendant actually possessed
New January 2006
The court has a sua sponte duty to give this instruction deﬁning the elements of
In element 4, give the alternative of “under 14 years of age” only if the defendant
is charged with offering to furnish, administer, or give away marijuana to a minor
under 14. (Health & Saf. Code, § 11361(a).)
When instructing on the deﬁnition of “marijuana,” the court may choose to give
just the ﬁrst bracketed sentence or may give the ﬁrst bracketed sentence with either
or both of the bracketed sentences following. The second and third sentences
should be given if requested and relevant based on the evidence. (See Health &
Saf. Code, § 11018 [deﬁning marijuana].)
Give the bracketed paragraph about calculating age if requested. (Fam. Code,
§ 6500; In re Harris (1993) 5 Cal.4th 813, 849–850 [21 Cal.Rptr.2d 373, 855 P.2d
• Elements. Health & Saf. Code, § 11361.
•Age of Defendant Element of Offense. People v. Montalvo (1971) 4 Cal.3d
328, 332 [93 Cal.Rptr. 581, 482 P.2d 205].
• No Defense of Good Faith Belief Offeree Over 18. People v. Williams (1991)
233 Cal.App.3d 407, 410–411 [284 Cal.Rptr. 454]; People v. Lopez (1969) 271
Cal.App.2d 754, 760 [77 Cal.Rptr. 59].
• Speciﬁc Intent. People v. Jackson (1963) 59 Cal.2d 468, 469–470 [30
Cal.Rptr. 329, 381 P.2d 1].
• Administering. Health & Saf. Code, § 11002.
2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Crimes Against Public
Peace and Welfare, §§ 103–105.
3 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 73,
Defenses and Justiﬁcations, § 73.06 (Matthew Bender).
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 145,
Narcotics and Alcohol Offenses, § 145.01[a], [h]–[j], [a] (Matthew Bender).
LESSER INCLUDED OFFENSES
• Offering to Sell to Person Not a Minor. Health & Saf. Code, § 11360.
•Simple Possession of Marijuana. Health & Saf. Code, § 11357.
• Possession for Sale of Marijuana. Health & Saf. Code, § 11359.
CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES CALCRIM No. 2391
No Requirement That Defendant Delivered or Possessed Drugs
A defendant may be convicted of offering to sell even if there is no evidence that
he or she delivered or ever possessed any controlled substance. (People v. Jackson
(1963) 59 Cal.2d 468, 469 [30 Cal.Rptr. 329, 381 P.2d 1]; People v. Brown (1960)
55 Cal.2d 64, 68 [9 Cal.Rptr. 816, 357 P.2d 1072].)
See the Related Issues section to CALCRIM No. 2390, Sale, Furnishing, etc., of
Marijuana to Minor.
CALCRIM No. 2391 CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES