California Criminal Jury Instructions (CALCRIM) (2017)
2401. Aiding and Abetting Unlawful Use of Controlled SubstanceDownload PDF
2401.Aiding and Abetting Unlawful Use of Controlled Substance
(Health & Saf. Code, § 11365)
The defendant is charged [in Count ]with aiding and abetting
unlawful use of a controlled substance in a place [in violation of Health
and Safety Code section 11365].
To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must
1. The defendant willfully and intentionally (visited/ [or] was
present in) a place where someone else was (smoking/ [or] using)
<insert controlled substance speciﬁed in Health & Saf.
Code, § 11365>, a controlled substance;
2. The defendant knew that the other person intended to (smoke/
[or] use) the controlled substance;
3. The defendant intended to aid and abet the other person in
(smoking/ [or] using) the controlled substance;
4. The defendant did or said something that did in fact aid and
abet the other person in (smoking/ [or] using) the controlled
5. The defendant knew that (his/her) words or conduct aided and
abetted the other person in (smoking/ [or] using) the controlled
Someone commits an act willfully when he or she does it willingly or on
Someone aids and abets a crime if, before or during the commission of
the crime, he or she knows of the perpetrator’s unlawful purpose and
he or she speciﬁcally intends to, and does in fact, aid, facilitate,
promote, encourage, or instigate the perpetrator’s commission of that
[If you conclude that the defendant was present at the scene of the
crime or failed to prevent the crime, you may consider that fact in
determining whether the defendant was an aider and abettor. However,
the fact that a person is present at the scene of a crime or fails to
prevent the crime does not, by itself, make him or her an aider and
[A person who aids and abets a crime is not guilty of that crime if he or
she withdraws before the crime is committed. To withdraw, a person
must do two things:
1. He or she must notify everyone else he or she knows is involved
in the commission of the crime that he or she is no longer
participating. The notiﬁcation must be made early enough to
prevent the commission of the crime;
2. He or she must do everything reasonably within his or her
power to prevent the crime from being committed. He or she
does not have to actually prevent the crime.
The People have the burden of proving beyond a reasonable doubt that
the defendant did not withdraw. If the People have not met this burden,
you may not ﬁnd the defendant guilty under an aiding and abetting
New January 2006
The court has a sua sponte duty to give this instruction deﬁning the elements of
the crime. (See People v. Beeman (1984) 35 Cal.3d 547, 560–561 [199 Cal.Rptr.
60, 674 P.2d 1318] [duty to instruct on aiding and abetting].)
If there is evidence that the defendant was merely present at the scene or only had
knowledge that a crime was being committed, the court has a sua sponte duty to
give the bracketed portion that begins with “If you conclude that the defendant was
present.” (People v. Boyd (1990) 222 Cal.App.3d 541, 557, fn. 14 [271 Cal.Rptr.
738]; In re Michael T. (1978) 84 Cal.App.3d 907, 911 [149 Cal.Rptr. 87].)
If there is evidence that the defendant withdrew from participation in the crime, the
court has a sua sponte duty to instruct on withdrawal. (People v. Norton (1958)
161 Cal.App.2d 399, 403 [327 P.2d 87]; People v. Ross (1979) 92 Cal.App.3d 391,
404–405 [154 Cal.Rptr. 783].) Give the bracketed portion that begins with “A
person who aids and abets a crime is not guilty.”
• Elements. Health & Saf. Code, § 11365.
•Willfully Deﬁned. Pen. Code, § 7(1); People v. Lara (1996) 44 Cal.App.4th
102, 107 [51 Cal.Rptr.2d 402].
• Aiding and Abetting Required. Health. & Saf. Code, § 11365(b); People v.
Cressey (1970) 2 Cal.3d 836, 848–849 [87 Cal.Rptr. 699, 471 P.2d 19].
• Knowledge and Willful, Intentional Involvement Required. People v. Brim
(1968) 257 Cal.App.2d 839, 842 [65 Cal.Rptr. 265].
• Requirements for Aiding and Abetting Generally. People v. Beeman (1984) 35
CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES CALCRIM No. 2401
Cal.3d 547, 560–561 [199 Cal.Rptr. 60, 674 P.2d 1318].
• Withdrawal. People v. Norton (1958) 161 Cal.App.2d 399, 403 [327 P.2d 87];
People v. Ross (1979) 92 Cal.App.3d 391, 404–405 [154 Cal.Rptr. 783].
• Presence or Knowledge Insufficient. People v. Boyd (1990) 222 Cal.App.3d
541, 557, fn. 14 [271 Cal.Rptr. 738]; In re Michael T. (1978) 84 Cal.App.3d
907, 911 [149 Cal.Rptr. 87].
2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Crimes Against Public
Peace and Welfare, § 118.
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 140,
Challenges to Crimes, § 140.10; Ch. 145, Narcotics and Alcohol Offenses,
§ 145.01[a], [m] (Matthew Bender).
Drug Use in Car
Acar is a “place” for the purposes of this offense. (People v. Lee (1968) 260
Cal.App.2d 836, 840–841 [67 Cal.Rptr. 709].)
See also the Related Issues section of CALCRIM No. 401, Aiding and Abetting:
2402–2409. Reserved for Future Use
CALCRIM No. 2401 CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES