CALCRIM No. 3101. Prior Conviction: Bifurcated Trial (Pen. Code, §§ 1025, 1158)

Judicial Council of California Criminal Jury Instructions (2023 edition)

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3101.Prior Conviction: Bifurcated Trial (Pen. Code, §§ 1025, 1158)
The People have alleged that the defendant was previously convicted of
(another/other) crime[s]. It has already been determined that the
defendant is the person named in exhibit[s] <insert number[s] or
description[s] of exhibit[s]>. You must decide whether the evidence
proves that the defendant was convicted of the alleged crime[s].
The People allege that the defendant has been convicted of:
[1.] A violation of <insert code section[s] alleged>, [for
which judgment was entered] on <insert date of
conviction/judgment>, in the <insert name of court>,
Case Number <insert docket or case number>(;/.)
[AND <Repeat for each prior conviction alleged.>]
[In deciding whether the People have proved the allegation[s], consider
only the evidence presented in this proceeding. Do not consider your
verdict or any evidence from the earlier part of the trial.]
You may not return a finding that (the/any) alleged conviction has or has
not been proved unless all 12 of you agree on that finding.
New January 2006; Revised September 2020, March 2022
Instructional Duty
If the defendant is charged with a prior conviction, the court has a sua sponte duty
to instruct on the allegation. Give this instruction if the court has granted a
bifurcated trial. The court must also give CALCRIM No. 221, Reasonable Doubt:
Bifurcated Trial.
If the defendant is charged with a prison prior, the court must determine whether the
jury should decide if the defendant served a separate prison term for the conviction
and whether the defendant remained free of prison custody for the “washout”
period. (Pen. Code, § 667.5(a) & (b).) The Commentary to CALCRIM No. 3100
discusses this issue. If the court chooses to submit these issues to the jury, give
CALCRIM No. 3102, Prior Conviction: Prison Prior, with this instruction.
If the court determines that there is a factual issue regarding the prior conviction
that must be submitted to the jury, give CALCRIM No. 3103: Prior Conviction:
Factual Issue for Jury, with this instruction. The Commentary to CALCRIM No.
3100 discusses this issue.
Give the bracketed phrase “for which judgment was entered” if there is more than
one prior conviction alleged.
Give the bracketed paragraph that begins with “In deciding whether the People have
proved” on request.
The court must provide the jury with a verdict form on which the jury will indicate
whether each prior conviction has been proved. (Pen. Code, § 1158.)
Statutory Authority. Pen. Code, §§ 1025, 1158.
Bifurcation. People v. Calderon (1994) 9 Cal.4th 69, 77-79 [36 Cal.Rptr.2d 333,
885 P.2d 83]; People v. Cline (1998) 60 Cal.App.4th 1327, 1334-1336 [71
Cal.Rptr.2d 41].
Judge Determines Whether Defendant Is Person Named in Documents. Pen.
Code, § 1025(b); People v. Epps (2001) 25 Cal.4th 19, 25 [104 Cal.Rptr.2d 572,
18 P.3d 2]; People v. Garcia (2003) 107 Cal.App.4th 1159, 1165 [132
Cal.Rptr.2d 694].
Disputed Factual Issues. See People v. Gallardo (2017) 4 Cal.5th 120, 136 [226
Cal.Rptr.3d 379, 407 P.3d 55]; Descamps v. United States (2013) 570 U.S. 254,
268-70 [133 S.Ct. 2276, 186 L.Ed.2d 438]; Apprendi v. New Jersey (2000) 530
U.S. 466, 490 [120 S.Ct. 2348, 147 L.Ed.2d 435].
Three-Strikes Statutes. Pen. Code, §§ 667(e), 1170.12.
Five-Year Enhancement for Serious Felony. Pen. Code, § 667(a)(1).
Three-Year Enhancement for Prison Prior If Violent Felony. Pen. Code,
§ 667.5(a).
One-Year Enhancement for Prison Prior. Pen. Code, § 667.5(b).
Serious Felony Defined. Pen. Code, § 1192(c).
Violent Felony Defined. Pen. Code, § 667.5(c).
See Motion for Bifurcated Trial in the Related Issues section of CALCRIM No.
3100, Prior Conviction: Nonbifurcated Trial.
5 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (4th ed. 2012) Criminal Trial, § 618.
2 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 42,
Arraignment, Pleas, and Plea Bargaining, § 42.21[6][a] (Matthew Bender).
5 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 91,
Sentencing, §§ 91.21[2], 91.60, 91.80 (Matthew Bender).

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