CALCRIM No. 3222. Characteristics of Victim (Pen. Code, §§ 667.9(a) & (b), 667.10(a))

Judicial Council of California Criminal Jury Instructions (2023 edition)

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3222.Characteristics of Victim (Pen. Code, §§ 667.9(a) & (b),
If you find the defendant guilty of the crime[s] charged in Count[s]
[,] [or of attempting to commit (that/those) crime[s]][ or the
lesser crimes[s] of <insert lesser offense[s]>], you must then
decide whether[, for each crime,] the People have proved the additional
allegation that the defendant committed that crime against a person who
was (65 years of age or older/under the age of 14
years/blind/deaf/developmentally disabled/paraplegic/ [or] quadriplegic).
[You must decide whether the People have proved this allegation for
each crime and return a separate finding for each crime.]
To prove this allegation, the People must prove that:
1. At the time of the crime, <insert name of alleged
victim> was (65 years of age or older/under the age of 14 years/
blind/deaf/developmentally disabled/paraplegic/ [or] quadriplegic);
2. At that time, the defendant knew or reasonably should have
known that <insert name of alleged victim> was (65
years of age or older/under the age of 14
years/blind/deaf/developmentally disabled/paraplegic/ [or]
[Under the law, a person becomes one year older as soon as the first
minute of his or her birthday has begun.]
[Developmentally disabled means a severe, chronic disability of a person
1. Is attributable to a mental or physical impairment or a
combination of mental and physical impairments;
2. Is likely to continue indefinitely;
3. Results in substantial functional limitation in three or more of the
following abilities:
a. To care for one’s self;
b. To understand and express language;
c. To learn;
d. To be independently mobile;
e. To engage in self-direction;
f. To live independently;
g. To be economically self-sufficient.]
The People have the burden of proving each allegation beyond a
reasonable doubt. If the People have not met this burden, you must find
that the allegation has not been proved.
New January 2006; Revised April 2011
Instructional Duty
The court has a sua sponte duty to give this instruction on the enhancement when
charged. (Apprendi v. New Jersey (2000) 530 U.S. 466, 490 [120 S.Ct. 2348, 147
L.Ed.2d 435].)
If the defendant is charged with a prior conviction under Penal Code section
667.9(b) or 667.10, the court must also give CALCRIM No. 3100, Prior
Conviction: Nonbifurcated Trial, unless the defendant has stipulated to the prior or
the court has granted a bifurcated trial on the prior conviction.
Give the bracketed paragraph about calculating age if requested. (Fam. Code,
§ 6500; In re Harris (1993) 5 Cal.4th 813, 849-850 [21 Cal.Rptr.2d 373, 855 P.2d
Give the bracketed definition of developmental disability if that enhancement is
Enhancements. Pen. Code, §§ 667.9(a) & (b), 667.10(a).
Developmental Disability Defined. Pen. Code, § 667.9(d).
Reasonably Should Have Known Not Unconstitutionally Vague. People v. Smith
(1993) 13 Cal.App.4th 1182, 1188-1190 [16 Cal.Rptr.2d 820].
Prior Conviction Not Required for Enhancement Under Penal Code Section
667.9(a). People v. Huricks (1995) 32 Cal.App.4th 1201, 1213 [38 Cal.Rptr.2d
Proof of Knowledge Requirement. People v. Morris (2010) 185 Cal.App.4th
1147, 1153-1154 [111 Cal.Rptr.3d 204].
3 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (4th ed. 2012) Punishment, §§ 381,
5 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (4th ed. 2012) Criminal Trial, § 727.
5 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 91,
Sentencing, § 91.52 (Matthew Bender).

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