443.Compelling Another to Commit Crime
If the defendant forced another person to commit a crime by
threatening, menacing, commanding, or coercing that person, then the
defendant is guilty of the crime that the defendant forced the other
person to commit.
New January 2006
The court has a sua sponte duty to instruct on the theory of liability advanced by
the prosecution. (See People v. Beeman (1984) 35 Cal.3d 547, 560–561 [199
Cal.Rptr. 60, 674 P.2d 1318] [sua sponte duty to instruct on aiding and abetting].)
• Principals Deﬁned. Pen. Code, § 31.
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 140,
Challenges to Crimes, § 140.10 (Matthew Bender).
444–449. Reserved for Future Use