524. Second Degree Murder: Peace Officer
If you find the defendant guilty of second degree murder [as charged in Count ], you must then decide whether the People have proved the additional allegation that (he/she) murdered a peace officer.
To prove this allegation the People must prove that:
1. <insert officer's name, excluding title> was a peace officer lawfully performing (his/her) duties as a peace officer;
2. When the defendant killed <insert officer's name, excluding title>, the defendant knew, or reasonably should have known, that <insert officer's name, excluding title> was a peace officer who was performing (his/her) duties(;/.)
<Give element 3 when defendant charged with Pen. Code, § 190(c)>
3. The defendant (intended to kill the peace officer/ [or] intended to inflict great bodily injury on the peace officer/ [or] personally used a (deadly weapon/ [or] firearm) to kill the peace officer).]
[Great bodily injury means significant or substantial physical injury. It is an injury that is greater than minor or moderate harm.]
[A deadly weapon is any object, instrument, or weapon that is inherently deadly or dangerous or one that is used in such a way that it is capable of causing and likely to cause death or great bodily injury.]
[A firearm is any device designed to be used as a weapon, from which a projectile is discharged or expelled through a barrel by the force of an explosion or other form of combustion.]
[The term[s] (great bodily injury[,]/ deadly weapon[,]/ [and] firearm) (is/are) defined in another instruction to which you should refer.]
[Someone personally uses a (deadly weapon/ [or] firearm) if he or she intentionally does any of the following:
1. Displays the weapon in a menacing manner;
2. Hits someone with the weapon;
3. Fires the weapon.]
[The People allege that the defendant <insert all of the factors from element 3 when multiple factors are alleged>. You may not find the defendant guilty unless you all agree that the People have proved at least one of these alleged facts and you all agree on which fact or facts were proved. You do not need to specify the fact or facts in your verdict.]
[A person who is employed as a police officer by <insert name of agency that employs police officer> is a peace officer.]
[A person employed by <insert name of agency that employs peace officer, e.g., "the Department of Fish and Game"> is a peace officer if <insert description of facts necessary to make employee a peace officer, e.g., "designated by the director of the agency as a peace officer">.]
[The duties of (a/an) <insert title of peace officer> include <insert job duties>.]
<When lawful performance is an issue, give the following paragraph and Instruction 2670, Lawful Performance: Peace Officer.>
[A peace officer is not lawfully performing his or her duties if he or she is (unlawfully arresting or detaining someone/ [or] using unreasonable or excessive force in his or her duties). Instruction 2670 explains (when an arrest or detention is unlawful/ [and] when force is unreasonable or excessive).]
The court has a sua sponte duty to give this instruction defining the elements of the sentencing enhancement. (See People v. Marshall (2000) 83 Cal.App.4th 186, 193-195 [99 Cal.Rptr.2d 441]; Apprendi v. New Jersey (2000) 530 U.S. 466, 475-476, 490 [120 S.Ct. 2348, 147 L.Ed.2d 435].)
If the defendant is charged under Penal Code section 190(b), give only elements 1 and 2. If the defendant is charged under Penal Code section 190(c), give all three elements, specifying the appropriate factors in element 3, and give the appropriate definitions, which follow in brackets. Give the bracketed unanimity instruction if the prosecution alleges more than one factor in element 3.
In order to be "engaged in the performance of his or her duties," a peace officer must be acting lawfully. (People v. Gonzalez (1990) 51 Cal.3d 1179, 1217 [275 Cal.Rptr. 729, 800 P.2d 1159].) "[D]isputed facts bearing on the issue of legal cause must be submitted to the jury considering an engaged-in-duty element." (Ibid.) If excessive force is an issue, the court has a sua sponte duty to instruct the jury that the defendant is not guilty of the offense charged, or any lesser included offense in which lawful performance is an element, if the defendant used reasonable force in response to excessive force. (People v. Olguin (1981) 119 Cal.App.3d 39, 46-47 [173 Cal.Rptr. 663].) On request, the court must instruct that the prosecution has the burden of proving the lawfulness of the arrest beyond a reasonable doubt. (People v. Castain (1981) 122 Cal.App.3d 138, 145 [175 Cal.Rptr. 651].) If lawful performance is an issue, give the bracketed paragraph on lawful performance and the appropriate portions of CALCRIM No. 2670, Lawful Performance: Peace Officer.
Give the relevant bracketed definitions unless the court has already given the definitions in other instructions. In such cases, the court may give the bracketed sentence stating that the term is defined elsewhere.
The jury must determine whether the alleged victim is a peace officer. (People v. Brown (1988) 46 Cal.3d 432, 444-445 [250 Cal.Rptr. 604, 758 P.2d 1135].) The court may instruct the jury on the appropriate definition of "peace officer" from the statute (e.g., "a Garden Grove Regular Police Officer and a Garden Grove Reserve Police Officer are peace officers"). (Ibid.) However, the court may not instruct the jury that the alleged victim was a peace officer as a matter of law (e.g., "Officer Reed was a peace officer"). (Ibid.) If the alleged victim is a police officer, give the bracketed sentence that begins with "A person employed as a police officer." If the alleged victim is another type of peace officer, give the bracketed sentence that begins with "A person employed by."
"Peace officer," as used in this statute, means "as defined in subdivision (a) of Section 830.1, subdivision (a), (b), or (c) of Section 830.2, subdivision (a) of Section 830.33, or Section 830.5." (Pen. Code, § 190(b) & (c).)
The court may give the bracketed sentence that begins, "The duties of a <insert title . . . .> include," on request. The court may insert a description of the officer's duties such as "the correct service of a facially valid search warrant." (People v. Gonzalez (1990) 51 Cal.3d 1179, 1222 [275 Cal.Rptr. 729, 800 P.2d 1159].)
Second Degree Murder of a Peace Officer. Pen. Code, § 190(b) & (c).
Personally Used Deadly Weapon. Pen. Code, § 12022.
Personally Used Firearm. Pen. Code, § 12022.5.
Personal Use. Pen. Code, § 1203.06(b)(3).
1 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Crimes Against the Person, § 164.
3 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 73, Defenses and Justifications, § 73.15 (Matthew Bender).
4 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 87, Death Penalty, § 87.13 (Matthew Bender).
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 142, Crimes Against the Person, § 142.01[c] (Matthew Bender).
(New January 2006)