Racketeering Enterprise Investigations
This section focuses on investigations of organized crime. It is concerned with the investigation of entire enterprises, rather than just individual participants and specific criminal acts, and authorizes investigations to determine the structure and scope of the enterprise as well as the relationship of the members.
Racketeering activity is any offense, including a violation of state law, encompassed by the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), 18 U.S.C. 1961(1).
- General Authority
- A racketeering enterprise investigation may be initiated when facts or circumstances reasonably indicate that two or more persons are engaged in a pattern of racketeering activity as defined in the RICO statute, 18 U.S.C. 1961(5). However, if the pattern of racketeering activity involves an offense or offenses described in 18 U.S.C. 2332b(g)(5)(B), the investigation shall be deemed a terrorism enterprise investigation and shall be subject to the standards and procedures of Subpart B of this Part in lieu of those set forth in this Subpart. The standard of "reasonable indication" is identical to that governing the initiation of a general crimes investigation under Part II.
- Authority to conduct racketeering enterprise investigations is in addition to general crimes investigative authority under Part II, terrorism enterprise investigative authority under Subpart B of this Part, and activities under other Attorney General guidelines addressing such matters as investigations and information collection relating to international terrorism, foreign counterintelligence, or foreign intelligence. Information warranting initiation of a racketeering enterprise investigation may be obtained during the course of a general crimes inquiry or investigation, a terrorism enterprise investigation, or an investigation under other Attorney General guidelines. Conversely, a racketeering enterprise investigation may yield information warranting a general crimes inquiry or investigation, a terrorism enterprise investigation, or an investigation under other Attorney General guidelines.
The immediate purpose of a racketeering enterprise investigation is to obtain information concerning the nature and structure of the enterprise, as specifically delineated in paragraph (4) below, with a view to the longer range objective of detection, prevention, and prosecution of the criminal activities of the enterprise.
- A racketeering enterprise investigation properly initiated under these guidelines may collect such information as:
- the members of the enterprise and other persons likely to be knowingly acting in the furtherance of racketeering activity, provided that the information concerns such persons' activities on behalf of or in furtherance of the enterprise;
- the finances of the enterprise;
- the geographical dimensions of the enterprise; and
- the past and future activities and goals of the enterprise.
- In obtaining the foregoing information, any lawful investigative technique may be used, in accordance with the requirements of Part IV.
- Authorization and Renewal
- A racketeering enterprise investigation may be authorized by the Special Agent in Charge, with notification to FBIHQ, upon a written recommendation setting forth the facts and circumstances reasonably indicating that the standard of paragraph (2)(a) is satisfied.
- The FBI shall notify the Organized Crime and Racketeering Section of the Criminal Division and any affected United States Attorney's office of the opening of a racketeering enterprise investigation. On receipt of such notice, the Organized Crime and Racketeering Section shall immediately notify the Attorney General and the Deputy Attorney General. In all racketeering enterprise investigations, the Chief of the Organized Crime and Racketeering Section may, as he or she deems necessary, request the FBI to provide a report on the status of the investigation.
- A racketeering enterprise investigation may be initially authorized for a period of up to a year. An investigation may be continued upon renewed authorization for additional periods each not to exceed a year. Renewal authorization shall be obtained from the SAC with notification to FBIHQ. The FBI shall notify the Organized Crime and Racketeering Section of any renewal, and the Organized Crime and Racketeering Section shall immediately notify the Attorney General and the Deputy Attorney General.
- Investigations shall be reviewed by the SAC on or before the expiration of the period for which the investigation and each renewal thereof is authorized.
- An investigation which has been terminated may be reopened upon a showing of the same standard and pursuant to the same procedures as required for initiation of an investigation.
- In addition to the authority of Special Agents in Charge under this paragraph, the Director of the FBI, and any Assistant Director or senior Headquarters official designated by the Director, may authorize, renew, review, and reopen racketeering enterprise investigations in conformity with the standards of this paragraph.