Criminal Law

Robbery, Extortion, and Blackmail - Basic Economic Offenses

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November 1, 2005GUIDELINES MANUAL§2B3.2

physically restrained to facilitate commission of the offense or to facilitate escape, increase by 2 levels.

(5) If the offense involved carjacking, increase by 2 levels.

(6) If a firearm, destructive device, or controlled substance was taken, or if the taking of such item was an object of the offense, increase by 1 level.

(7) If the loss exceeded $10,000, increase the offense level as follows:

Loss (Apply the Greatest)
Increase in Level

(A) $10,000 or less
no increase

(B) More than $10,000
add 1

(C) More than $50,000
add 2

(D) More than $250,000
add 3

(E) More than $800,000
add 4

(F) More than $1,500,000
add 5

(G) More than $2,500,000
add 6

(H) More than $5,000,000
add 7.

(c) Cross Reference

(1) If a victim was killed under circumstances that would constitute murder under 18 U.S.C. § 1111 had such killing taken place within the territorial or maritime jurisdiction of the United States, apply §2A1.1 (First Degree Murder).


Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 1951, 2113, 2114, 2118(a), 2119. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).

Application Notes:

1. "Firearm," "destructive device," "dangerous weapon," "otherwise used," "brandished," "bodily injury," "serious bodily injury," "permanent or life-threatening bodily injury," "abducted," and "physically restrained" are defined in the Commentary to §1B1.1 (Application Instructions).

"Carjacking" means the taking or attempted taking of a motor vehicle from the person or presence of another by force and violence or by intimidation.

2. Consistent with Application Note 1(d)(ii) of §1B1.1 (Application Instructions), an object shall be considered to be a dangerous weapon for purposes of subsection (b)(2)(E) if (A) the object closely resembles an instrument capable of inflicting death or serious bodily injury; or (B) the defendant used the object in a manner that created the impression that the object was an instrument capable of inflicting death or serious bodily injury (e.g., a defendant wrapped a hand in a towel during a bank robbery to create the appearance of a gun).

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