Criminal Law

Unlawful Manufacturing, Importing, Exporting, Trafficking, or Possession; Continuing Criminal Enterprise - Offenses Involving Drugs

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November 1, 2005GUIDELINES MANUAL§2D1.5

involving the same quantity of actual LSD (but different carrier weights), as well as sentences disproportionate to those for other, more dangerous controlled substances, such as PCP. Consequently, in cases involving LSD contained in a carrier medium, the Commission has established a weight per dose of 0.4 milligram for purposes of determining the base offense level.

The dosage weight of LSD selected exceeds the Drug Enforcement Administration’s standard dosage unit for LSD of 0.05 milligram (i.e., the quantity of actual LSD per dose) in order to assign some weight to the carrier medium. Because LSD typically is marketed and consumed orally on a carrier medium, the inclusion of some weight attributable to the carrier medium recognizes (A) that offense levels for most other controlled substances are based upon the weight of the mixture containing the controlled substance without regard to purity, and (B) the decision in Chapman v. United States, 111 S.Ct. 1919 (1991) (holding that the term "mixture or substance" in 21 U.S.C. § 841(b)(1) includes the carrier medium in which LSD is absorbed). At the same time, the weight per dose selected is less than the weight per dose that would equate the offense level for LSD on a carrier medium with that for the same number of doses of PCP, a controlled substance that comparative assessments indicate is more likely to induce violent acts and ancillary crime than is LSD. (Treating LSD on a carrier medium as weighing 0.5 milligram per dose would produce offense levels equivalent to those for PCP.) Thus, the approach decided upon by the Commission will harmonize offense levels for LSD offenses with those for other controlled substances and avoid an undue influence of varied carrier weight on the applicable offense level. Nonetheless, this approach does not override the applicability of "mixture or substance" for the purpose of applying any mandatory minimum sentence (see Chapman; §5G1.1(b)).

Subsection (b)(6)(A) implements the instruction to the Commission in section 303 of Public Law 103–237.

Subsections (b)(6)(B) and (C) implement, in a broader form, the instruction to the Commission in section 102 of Public Law 106–310.

Historical Note:: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective January 15, 1988 (see Appendix C, amendments 19, 20, and 21); November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 123-134, 302, and 303); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendment 318); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendments 369-371 and 394-396); November 1, 1992 (see Appendix C, amendments 446 and 447); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendments 479, 484-488, and 499); September 23, 1994 (see Appendix C, amendment 509); November 1, 1994 (see Appendix C, amendment 505); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendments 514-518); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendments 555 and 556); November 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendments 594 and 605); December 16, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendment 608); May 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendments 609-611); November 1, 2001 (see Appendix C, amendments 620-625); November 1, 2002 (see Appendix C, amendment 640); November 1, 2003 (see Appendix C, amendment 657); November 1, 2004 (see Appendix C, amendments 667, 668, and 674); November 1, 2005 (see Appendix C, amendment 679).

§2D1.2. Drug Offenses Occurring Near Protected Locations or Involving Underage or Pregnant Individuals; Attempt or Conspiracy

(a) Base Offense Level (Apply the greatest):

(1) 2 plus the offense level from §2D1.1 applicable to the quantity of controlled substances directly involving a protected location or an

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