Criminal Law

Civil Rights - Offenses Involving Individual Rights

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November 1, 2005GUIDELINES MANUAL§2H1.4

based on the entire conduct underlying the count of conviction (i.e., the conduct taken as a whole). Use the alternative base offense level only if it is greater than each of the Chapter Two offense levels determined above. Otherwise, use the Chapter Two offense levels for each of the underlying offenses (with each underlying offense treated as if contained in a separate count of conviction). Then apply subsection (b) to the alternative base offense level, or to the Chapter Two offense levels for each of the underlying offenses, as appropriate.

2. "Participant" is defined in the Commentary to §3B1.1 (Aggravating Role).

3. The burning or defacement of a religious symbol with an intent to intimidate shall be deemed to involve the threat of force against a person for the purposes of subsection (a)(3)(A).

4. If the finder of fact at trial or, in the case of a plea of guilty or nolo contendere, the court at sentencing determines beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant intentionally selected any victim or any property as the object of the offense because of the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, disability, or sexual orientation of any person, an additional 3-level enhancement from §3A1.1(a) will apply. An adjustment from §3A1.1(a) will not apply, however, if a 6-level adjustment from §2H1.1(b) applies. See §3A1.1(c).

5. If subsection (b)(1) applies, do not apply §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill).

Historical Note:: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 303); November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendments 313 and 327); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 430); November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 521); November 1, 2000 (see Appendix C, amendment 591).

§2H1.2. [Deleted]


Historical Note:: Section 2H1.2 (Conspiracy to Interfere with Civil Rights), effective November 1, 1987, amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 303), was deleted by consolidation with §2H1.1 effective November 1, 1990 (see Appendix C, amendment 327).

§2H1.3. [Deleted]


Historical Note:: Section 2H1.3 (Use of Force or Threat of Force to Deny Benefits or Rights in Furtherance of Discrimination; Damage to Religious Real Property), effective November 1, 1987, amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 165), was deleted by consolidation with §2H1.1 effective November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 521).

§2H1.4. [Deleted]


Historical Note:: Section 2H1.4 (Interference with Civil Rights Under Color of Law), effective November 1, 1987, amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 166), was deleted by consolidation with §2H1.1 effective November 1, 1995 (see Appendix C, amendment 521).

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