in separate cases or matters (e.g., separate trials of codefendants), but does not include multiple grand jury proceedings in the same case.
Background: This section applies to perjury, subornation of perjury, and witness bribery, generally prosecuted under the referenced statutes. The guidelines provide a higher penalty for perjury than the pre-guidelines practice estimate of ten months imprisonment. The Commission believes that perjury should be treated similarly to obstruction of justice. Therefore, the same considerations for enhancing a sentence are applied in the specific offense characteristics, and an alternative reference to the guideline for accessory after the fact is made.
Historical Note:: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 175); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendments 401 and 402); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 481); November 1, 2003 (see Appendix C, amendment 653).
(a) Base Offense Level: 6
(b) Specific Offense Characteristic
(1) If the impersonation was committed for the purpose of conducting an unlawful arrest, detention, or search, increase by 6 levels.
(c) Cross Reference
(1) If the impersonation was to facilitate another offense, apply the guideline for an attempt to commit that offense, if the resulting offense level is greater than the offense level determined above.
Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 912, 913.
Background: This section applies to impersonation of a federal officer, agent, or employee; and impersonation to conduct an unlawful search or arrest.
Historical Note:: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 176).