Criminal Law

Naturalization and Passports - Offenses Involving Immigration, Naturalization, and Passports

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November 1, 2005GUIDELINES MANUAL§2L2.2

Alien to Evade Immigration Law; Fraudulently Acquiring or Improperly Using a United States Passport

(a) Base Offense Level: 8

(b) Specific Offense Characteristics

(1) If the defendant is an unlawful alien who has been deported (voluntarily or involuntarily) on one or more occasions prior to the instant offense, increase by 2 levels.

(2) If the defendant committed any part of the instant offense after sustaining (A) a conviction for a felony immigration and naturalization offense, increase by 2 levels; or (B) two (or more) convictions for felony immigration and naturalization offenses, each such conviction arising out of a separate prosecution, increase by 4 levels.

(3) If the defendant fraudulently obtained or used a United States passport, increase by 4 levels.

(c) Cross Reference

(1) If the defendant used a passport or visa in the commission or attempted commission of a felony offense, other than an offense involving violation of the immigration laws, apply --(A) §2X1.1 (Attempt, Solicitation, or Conspiracy) in respect to that felony offense, if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above; or

(B) if death resulted, the most analogous offense guideline from Chapter Two, Part A, Subpart 1 (Homicide), if the resulting offense level is greater than that determined above.


Statutory Provisions: 8 U.S.C. §§ 1160(b)(7)(A), 1185(a)(3), (5), 1325(b), (c); 18 U.S.C. §§ 911, 1015, 1028, 1423-1426, 1542-1544, 1546.

Application Notes:

1. Definition.—For purposes of this guideline, "immigration and naturalization offense" means any offense covered by Chapter Two, Part L.

2. Application of Subsection (b)(2).— Prior felony conviction(s) resulting in an adjustment under subsection (b)(2) are also counted for purposes of determining criminal history points pursuant to Chapter Four, Part A (Criminal History).

3. Application of Subsection (b)(3).—The term "used" is to be construed broadly and includes the

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