caused. Additional specific offense characteristics are included because of the potential for these tax conspiracies to subvert the revenue system and the danger to law enforcement agents and the public.
Historical Note:: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendments 233 and 234); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 491).
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2. ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAXES
This section deals with offenses contained in Parts I-IV of Subchapter J of Title 26, chiefly 26 U.S.C. §§ 5601-5605, 5607, 5608, 5661, 5671, 5691, and 5762, where the essence of the conduct is tax evasion or a regulatory violation. Because these offenses are no longer a major enforcement priority, no effort has been made to provide a section-by-section set of guidelines. Rather, the conduct is dealt with by dividing offenses into two broad categories: tax evasion offenses and regulatory offenses.
Historical Note:: Effective November 1, 1987.
§2T2.1. Non-Payment of Taxes
(a) Base Offense Level: Level from §2T4.1 (Tax Table) corresponding to the tax loss.
For purposes of this guideline, the "tax loss" is the amount of taxes that the taxpayer failed to pay or attempted not to pay.
Statutory Provisions: 26 U.S.C. §§ 5601-5605, 5607, 5608, 5661, 5671, 5691, 5762, provided the conduct constitutes non-payment, evasion or attempted evasion of taxes. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).
1. The tax loss is the total amount of unpaid taxes that were due on the alcohol and/or tobacco, or that the defendant was attempting to evade.
2. Offense conduct directed at more than tax evasion (e.g., theft or fraud) may warrant an upward departure.