The Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 makes probation a sentence in and of itself. 18 U.S.C. § 3561. Probation may be used as an alternative to incarceration, provided that the terms and conditions of probation can be fashioned so as to meet fully the statutory purposes of sentencing, including promoting respect for law, providing just punishment for the offense, achieving general deterrence, and protecting the public from further crimes by the defendant.
Historical Note:: Effective November 1, 1987.
§5B1.1. Imposition of a Term of Probation
(a) Subject to the statutory restrictions in subsection (b) below, a sentence of probation is authorized if:
(1) the applicable guideline range is in Zone A of the Sentencing Table; or
(2) the applicable guideline range is in Zone B of the Sentencing Table and the court imposes a condition or combination of conditions requiring intermittent confinement, community confinement, or home detention as provided in subsection (c)(3) of §5C1.1 (Imposition of a Term of Imprisonment).
(b) A sentence of probation may not be imposed in the event:
(1) the offense of conviction is a Class A or B felony, 18 U.S.C. § 3561(a)(1);
(2) the offense of conviction expressly precludes probation as a sentence, 18 U.S.C. § 3561(a)(2);
(3) the defendant is sentenced at the same time to a sentence of imprisonment for the same or a different offense, 18 U.S.C. § 3561(a)(3).
1. Except where prohibited by statute or by the guideline applicable to the offense in Chapter Two, the guidelines authorize, but do not require, a sentence of probation in the following circumstances:
(a) Where the applicable guideline range is in Zone A of the Sentencing Table (i.e., the