Section 401 of Public Law 101-647 amended 18 U.S.C. § 1201 to require that courts take into account certain specific offense characteristics in cases involving a victim under eighteen years of age and directed the Commission to include those specific offense characteristics within the guidelines. Where the guidelines did not already take into account the conduct identified by the Act, additional specific offense characteristics have been provided.
Subsections (a) and (b)(5), and the deletion of subsection (b)(4)(C), effective May 30, 2003, implement the directive to the Commission in section 104 of Public Law 108–21.
Historical Note:: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1989 (see Appendix C, amendment 96); November 1, 1991 (see Appendix C, amendment 363); November 1, 1992 (see Appendix C, amendment 445); November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 478); November 1, 1997 (see Appendix C, amendment 545); November 1, 2002 (see Appendix C, amendment 637); May 30, 2003 (see Appendix C, amendment 650); October 27, 2003 (see Appendix C, amendment 651).
§2A4.2. Demanding or Receiving Ransom Money
(a) Base Offense Level: 23
(b) Cross Reference
(1) If the defendant was a participant in the kidnapping offense, apply §2A4.1 (Kidnapping, Abduction, Unlawful Restraint).
Statutory Provisions: 18 U.S.C. §§ 876, 877, 1202. For additional statutory provision(s), see Appendix A (Statutory Index).
1. A "participant" is a person who is criminally responsible for the commission of the offense, but need not have been convicted.
Background: This section specifically includes conduct prohibited by 18 U.S.C. § 1202, requiring that ransom money be received, possessed, or disposed of with knowledge of its criminal origins. The actual demand for ransom under these circumstances is reflected in §2A4.1. This section additionally includes extortionate demands through the use of the United States Postal Service, behavior proscribed by 18 U.S.C. §§ 876-877.
Historical Note:: Effective November 1, 1987. Amended effective November 1, 1993 (see Appendix C, amendment 479).