Criminal Law

Theft, Embezzlement, Receipt of Stolen Property, Property Destruction, and Offenses Involving Fraud or Deceit - Basic Economic Offenses

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November 1, 2005GUIDELINES MANUAL§2B1.1

(D) College Scholarship Fraud.—For purposes of subsection (b)(8)(D):

"Financial assistance" means any scholarship, grant, loan, tuition, discount, award, or other financial assistance for the purpose of financing an education.

"Institution of higher education" has the meaning given that term in section 101 of the Higher Education Act of 1954 (20 U.S.C. § 1001).

(E) Non-Applicability of Enhancements.—

(i) Subsection (b)(8)(A).—If the conduct that forms the basis for an enhancement under subsection (b)(8)(A) is the only conduct that forms the basis for an adjustment under §3B1.3 (Abuse of Position of Trust or Use of Special Skill), do not apply that adjustment under §3B1.3.

(ii) Subsection (b)(8)(B) and (C).—If the conduct that forms the basis for an enhancement under subsection (b)(8)(B) or (C) is the only conduct that forms the basis for an adjustment under §3C1.1 (Obstructing or Impeding the Administration of Justice), do not apply that adjustment under §3C1.1.

8. Sophisticated Means Enhancement under Subsection (b)(9).—

(A) Definition of United States.—For purposes of subsection (b)(9)(B), "United States" means each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa.

(B) Sophisticated Means Enhancement.—For purposes of subsection (b)(9)(C), "sophisticated means" means especially complex or especially intricate offense conduct pertaining to the execution or concealment of an offense. For example, in a telemarketing scheme, locating the main office of the scheme in one jurisdiction but locating soliciting operations in another jurisdiction ordinarily indicates sophisticated means. Conduct such as hiding assets or transactions, or both, through the use of fictitious entities, corporate shells, or offshore financial accounts also ordinarily indicates sophisticated means.

(C) Non-Applicability of Enhancement.—If the conduct that forms the basis for an enhancement under subsection (b)(9) is the only conduct that forms the basis for an adjustment under §3C1.1, do not apply that adjustment under §3C1.1.

9. Application of Subsection (b)(10).—

(A) Definitions.—For purposes of subsection (b)(10):

"Authentication feature" has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 1028(d)(1).

"Counterfeit access device" (i) has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C. § 1029(e)(2); and (ii) includes a telecommunications instrument that has been modified or altered to obtain unauthorized use of telecommunications service. "Telecommunications service" has the meaning given that term in 18 U.S.C.

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