Scottsdale, Arizona Bankruptcy Lawyers

Peter H. Westby
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ASocial Media
(855) 274-9529 3260 N. Hayden Road
Suite 210
Scottsdale, AZ 85251
Free ConsultationScottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 46 years experience
Bankruptcy, Business, Collections and Foreclosure Defense
James E. Rogers College of Law, University of Arizona
Born in Minnesota, Attorney Peter Westby has resided in Arizona since 1962 and in Phoenix since 1974. Mr. Westby graduated from the University of Arizona College of Law in 1973 and entered the practice of law as a prosecuting attorney, first with the City of Tucson and then with the Pima County Attorney's office as a Criminal Trial Deputy. He joined partner Harvey Platt in the private practice of law in Phoenix in 1974 and together they formed Platt & Westby, P.C. Mr. Westby practices in the areas of real estate law, civil litigation, family law, estate planning, probate, estate...
Brian M. Blum
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer with 13 years experience
(480) 421-9449 4110 N. Scottsdale Road, Suite #330
Scottsdale, AZ 85251
Free ConsultationBankruptcy
California Western School of Law
Brian Blum is Of Counsel to the firm and Managing Attorney to its sister firm, The Turnaround Team™, which focuses on consumer bankruptcy matters, primarily under Chapters 7 and 13 of the Bankruptcy Code. Prior to joining the firm, Brian was an associate attorney with an East Valley firm handing a large volume of consumer bankruptcy cases. Additionally, Brian represented consumer bankruptcy debtors for 3 years in his own solo law practice. Brian graduated from Arizona State University with a Bachelor of Science degree in finance. Following his undergraduate education, he spent over two years working as a...
Randy Nussbaum
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 38 years experience
(480) 609-0011 14850 N. Scottsdale Road
Suite 450
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
Bankruptcy, Business, Construction and Foreclosure Defense
Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law, Arizona State University
Randy Nussbaum is a shareholder with the law firm, Sacks Tierney P.A. With more than 35 years’ experience Mr. Nussbaum represents individuals and businesses in bankruptcy protection, transaction and litigation matters. Well regarded for his innovative approach to resolve complex, high-value issues that require superior insight, experience and knowledge, Mr. Nussbaum’s clients especially value his ability to align legal strategy to achieve case objectives.

Mr. Nussbaum is a Certified Bankruptcy Specialist (Arizona Board of Legal Specialization) and a Certified Business Bankruptcy Specialist (American Board of Certification). He has been honored with multiple peer rankings and accolades for his...
Harvey B. Platt
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer with 46 years experience
(855) 274-9529 15849 N 71st St
#100
Scottsdale, AZ 85254
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Business, Collections and Foreclosure Defense
James E. Rogers College of Law, University of Arizona
Daniel Garrison
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 24 years experience
(480) 421-9449 4110 North Scottsdale Road, Suite #330
Scottsdale, AZ 85251
Free ConsultationBankruptcy and Business
Dan Garrison is the founder and managing member of the firm and of its sister firm, The Turnaround Team™, which focuses on consumer bankruptcy matters. For two decades, Dan has assisted clients with corporate restructuring, bankruptcy, commercial and real estate litigation, and corporate and real estate transactions. He holds an AV® Preeminent™ rating, the highest designation awarded by Martindale-Hubbell, the primary professional rating organization for attorneys. He also has been listed in Southwest Super Lawyers®, a designation limited to the top 5% of attorneys in the southwestern United States, has been named to Best Lawyers in America®, and been named...
Douglas Daly
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer
(480) 607-8308 7537 East McDonald Drive
Scottsdale, AZ 85250
Bankruptcy, Divorce, Employment and Family
Southwestern Law School
At the Daly Law Firm, I offer clients responsive legal services individually tailored to their needs in family law matters. Please use the link below to read more about attorney Douglas Daly of the Daly Law Firm, with offices in Phoenix and Scottsdale. I was born and raised in Arizona. I attended Arizona State University and graduated Magna Cum Laude in 2003 with a B.S. in Marketing. While attending Arizona State University, I was a member of the Phi Eta Sigma Honor Society and a member of the National Honor Society of Collegiate Scholars. I continued my education at Southwestern Law...
Arthur F. Stockton
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney
(866) 682-8776 8655 E. Via de Ventura
Suite G200
Scottsdale, AZ 85258
Bankruptcy
University of Arizona
The Stockton Law Offices is comprised of professionals who focus their practice on consumer advocacy. We have a wide-ranging bankruptcy practice, representing consumers in Chapter 7, 13 and 11 bankruptcy matters. The firm was founded by Arthur Stockton in Scottsdale, Arizona. Mr. Stockton brings a wealth of experience and leadership to the firm. He graduated magna cum laude from the University of Arizona College of Law, in 1985. He began his career with O'Connor Cavanagh (now Greenberg Traurig) in Phoenix and went on to co-found the new Valley Bank of Arizona and the Stockton Trust Companies. Through...
Deborah Schrier-Rape
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 32 years experience
(214) 732-6441 5635 N. Scottsdale Rd
Suite 170
Scottsdale, AZ 85250
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Collections, Consumer and Foreclosure Defense
Stanford University
Highly experienced in commercial litigation and general corporate matters. Has been both partner in AM Law 50 law firm and General Counsel of corporation. Great courtroom, negotiation and client relation skills.
Craig Cherney
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney
14300 N. Northsight Blvd. Suite 129
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
Bankruptcy, Divorce, Domestic Violence and Family
University of San Diego School of Law
Craig Cherney is a different kind of attorney. He truly listens and solves problems rather than merely identify risks. Craig is also a unique talent for a family law dispute. Craig brings complex real property, business and financial expertise to family law matters enabling him to offer clients a tremendous strategic advantage. He provides a unique perspective to complex issues like asset valuation, asset recovery, disposition and sale of real property, division and valuation of of business partnerships, determining present value of future income streams and locating hidden assets or income often implicated in family law disputes. In law school,...
Pamela T. Allen
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney
(480) 566-9649 7150 East Camelback Road
Suite 444
Scottsdale, AZ 85251
Free ConsultationBankruptcy and Foreclosure Defense
Pamela T. Allen, Associate Attorney, is a native of Atlanta, GA. She received her law degree from Florida Coastal School of Law in Jacksonville, FL. She also received her bachelor’s degree in Political Science from Georgia State University. Pamela is admitted to the the Virginia and Arizona State Bars and The Tidewater Bankruptcy Bar Association. Her practice focuses on bankruptcy and family law in our extremely busy Phoenix area offices. Her husband is active duty in the United States Air Force.
Linda Lory
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer with 27 years experience
(602) 690-4333 4708 E Saguaro Place
Scottsdale, AZ 85253
Bankruptcy, Divorce, Family and Personal Injury
Irena Makeeta Juras
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer
(480) 425-2009 7150 E Camelback Rd
Scottsdale, AZ 85251
Bankruptcy
Mr. Joseph A. Velez
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer with 25 years experience
(480) 710-5079 7150 E. 2nd Street, Suite 200
Scottsdale, AZ 85251
Bankruptcy, Business, Employment and Foreclosure Defense
Charles M. Leftwich
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer
9590 E. Ironwood Square Dr.
Suite 105
Scottsdale, AZ 85258
Bankruptcy
Emi Koyama
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer
(480) 550-8697 14700 N. Frank Lloyd Wright Blvd. Ste. 157
ATTN: 381
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
Bankruptcy
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 19 years experience
(480) 313-0506 7258 E Del Acero Dr
Scottsdale, AZ 85258
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Arbitration & Mediation and Business
The University of Chicago Law School
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer with 31 years experience
(480) 339-1824 14350 N. 87th Street
Suite 310
Scottsdale, AZ 85260
Bankruptcy, Business, Consumer and Employment
Georgetown University Law Center
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney
(480) 429-5000 10505 North 69th Street
Suite 300
Scottsdale, AZ 85253
Bankruptcy, Business, Real Estate and Securities
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer
(480) 429-5000 10505 North 69th Street
Suite 300
Scottsdale, AZ 85253
Bankruptcy, Business, Municipal and Real Estate
Scottsdale, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney
(480) 429-5000 10505 North 69th Street
Suite 300
Scottsdale, AZ 85253
Bankruptcy, Business, Family and Health Care
Diane L. Drain
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ABlawgsearchSocial MediaResponsive Law
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer with 33 years experience
(602) 246-7106 2375 East Camelback
Suite 600
Phoenix, AZ 85016
Free ConsultationBankruptcy and Consumer
University of Arizona
Our clients come to us at a time they are overwhelmed and scared. Everyone has a right to a peaceful night’s sleep without the worry of unwanted phone calls, law suits or their wages being garnished. We want all our clients to have that peace of mind and know we are in their corner. Some attorneys went to law school to make their fortune; I committed my life to making a difference for those who need a helping hand. Many believe they cannot afford good legal advice. That may be true for some, but NOT for consumers...
Jonathan Collins
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 16 years experience
(602) 788-7227 3241 East Shea Blvd Suite 1
Phoenix, AZ 85028
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Appeals, Arbitration & Mediation and Business
University of Tulsa College of Law and Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law, Arizona State University
Focused on Family, Probate, Bankruptcy & Debt, Business Law. Jonathan S. Collins received his undergraduate degree from Arizona State University and then his law degree from the University of Tulsa College of Law. He was a visiting student at the Arizona State University Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law for his last semester of law school. Jonathan has been a member, in good standing, of the State Bar of Arizona since 2003. He is also licensed to practice law before all Federal Courts of the State of Arizona. Jon has been a law clerk for a...
Scott William Hyder
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer with 22 years experience
(602) 923-7370 3420 East Shea Blvd., Ste. 200
Phoenix, AZ 85028
Bankruptcy, Business, Collections and Foreclosure Defense
Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law, Arizona State University
As a seasoned attorney with 17 years of experience, I am involved in a wide variety of legal work, including bankruptcy, foreclosure, real estate, estate planning and business law. Throughout your case and beyond, I will help you understand your rights and protect your best interests. My practice services the Phoenix-metro area and cities throughout Arizona.
Anthony Clark
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 25 years experience
(855) 512-0777 One East Camelback
Phoenix, AZ 85012
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Estate Planning and Personal Injury
State Bar Admissions: Arizona 1999, Kentucky 1996, Georgia 1996, Tennessee 1994. As of 2014, Anthony W. Clark, Attorney and Counselor™ has appeared as attorney of record and directly supervised attorneys acting on behalf of more than 12,000 (twelve thousand) individuals and companies in various matters pending before state and federal courts since 1994. No professional discipline before any court or bar association, no incident of professional liability. Education: Bachelor of Arts 1989, University of Kentucky, Communication, Latin American Studies. Juris Doctor 1993, Chase College of Law at Northern Kentucky University. Married more than 20 years...
Fabiola Jean-Gilles
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Tempe, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer with 27 years experience
(480) 277-2525 60 East Rio Salado Pkwy.
Ste. 900
Tempe, AZ 85281
Bankruptcy, Divorce, Family and Foreclosure Defense
Seton Hall University School of Law
I am admitted to practice in New York and Arizona. I speak French, Spanish and French Creole. I am a graduate of New York University and Seton Hall Law School.
Peter Walter Weston
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 44 years experience
2375 East Camelback
Suite 600
Phoenix, AZ 85016
Free ConsultationBankruptcy
South Texas College Of Law
Pete has been practicing law for over 35 years. He has been Board Certified by the Texas Board of Legal Specialization in Consumer Bankruptcy and Business Bankruptcy since 1994. He graduated from Texas Tech University with a business degree. He then went on to obtain his law degree from South Texas College of Law where he made the Dean’s list and the Spurgeon Mock Trial Team.

Prior to practicing law, Pete served as an Assistant Professor at Sam Houston State University. Pete also holds an active real estate broker’s license. Pete is an AV Rated attorney by Martindell Hubell...
David Telles
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer with 14 years experience
(602) 428-7104 3770 North 7th Street
Suite 100
Phoenix, AZ 85014
Free ConsultationBankruptcy and Criminal
University of Arizona
Harold Campbell III
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 42 years experience
(480) 630-3186 830 North 1st Avenue
Suite 214
Phoenix, AZ 85003
Bankruptcy
University of Arizona
Harold E. Campbell has over 38 years of experience practicing law. A significant portion of his caseload is dedicated to representing debtors and creditors in bankruptcy matters, including reorganization and liquidation bankruptcy and tax debt matters. Mr. Coombs is a certified bankruptcy specialist by the State Bar of Arizona. He stands by his philosophy of “Personal Service in an Impersonal World” by treating his clients with the highest levels of professionalism, attention, and respect. Aside from bankruptcy, Mr. Campbell also handles cases relating to general business, wills, incorporation, and tax problem resolution.
Thomas John Cesta
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Mesa, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 17 years experience
(480) 243-7300 4140 E. Baseline Rd.
Suite 101
Mesa, AZ 85206
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Arbitration & Mediation and DUI
Capital University Law School
I feel that I deliver superior service. Call me or email me directly. I will not put you off to my paralegal. I will respond quickly and directly. I love to help clients get a fresh start so they can get back to living. I am a former medic in the Army, then Corpsman in the Navy with a Marine Corps company.
Ms. Krystal M. Ahart
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer with 7 years experience
(602) 266-1717 301 East Bethany Home Road, Suite C-195
Phoenix, AZ 85012
Bankruptcy
Arizona Summit Law School
KRYSTAL M. AHART is an associate at the Bankruptcy Legal Center™ in Arizona. Her desire to be a lawyer began at a very young age (she was even voted most likely to become a lawyer in elementary school!). She focuses her practice on representing individual and commercial clients in Chapter 7, 11, and 13 bankruptcy proceedings. She is an experienced Arizona bankruptcy attorney who has successfully guided many clients through the process of bankruptcy, providing the high-quality, personalized legal advice they need through every phase of their case. Ms. Ahart has been licensed to practice law in the...
Brian Soleymani
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer with 8 years experience
(602) 396-2290 18444 N. 25th Ave. Suite 420
Phoenix, AZ 85023
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Business, Immigration and Landlord Tenant
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School
Attorney Soleymani has been admitted to practice law in Massachusetts since 2010 and in Arizona since 2015. His Scottsdale, Arizona practice is focused primarily in Immigration law and civil litigation. His Lynn, Massachusetts civil litigation practice was focused on Automotive Consumer Claims, ranging from fraudulent transactions, faulty repairs, warranty and lemon law, to auto accidents involving personal injury, as well as Real Estate and Housing, Business Litigation, and Immigration law. He has extensive knowledge in automotive service business, making him unique in legal practice arena. He was a fellow arbitrator with the Better Buisness Bureau "Autoline" program. Additionally, he was...
Robert Collins
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer
(602) 788-7227 3241 East Shea Blvd Suite 1
Phoenix, AZ 85028
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Divorce and Probate
A lawyer with an exceptional track record and life achievements dedicated to Service and the Law Bob has been practicing law since 1980, when he graduated with honors from Brigham Young University School of Law, where he obtained the highest score ever received in ethics and was given the Am Juris Award for Civil Procedure. He earned his law degree while working as a special agent in law enforcement investigating organized crime, political corruption and major frauds. A member of the Arizona State Bar since 1994, Bob has concentrated on litigation in such areas as Family Law, Criminal...
Larry Karandreas Esq.
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 30 years experience
(623) 487-1670 11024 North 28th Drive
Suite 200
Phoenix, AZ 85029
Free ConsultationBankruptcy
My philosophy is simple, I use empathy and experience to help my clients find relief from debt, to find peace of mind. I personally help all my clients. I do all consultations, all analyses of a client's case, basically all work necessary to help a client find that peace of mind that he/she deserves. The logo, A Lawyer Who Cares is not just a logo; I do care about the success of client's case and work to help them achieve success in an area of the law that, at times, can be daunting, confusing and frightening. I provide free initial consultations...
Lawrence Pew
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Mesa, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney
(480) 745-1770 1811 South Alma School Rd.
Mesa, AZ 85210
Bankruptcy
Michael Wayne Weston
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 13 years experience
(800) 220-4318 2375 East Camelback
Suite 600
Phoenix, AZ 85016
Free ConsultationBankruptcy and Consumer
Mike has devoted his career to helping consumers deal with debt. He graduated from St. Mary’s University School of Law in the top five percent of his graduating class. Mike made the Dean’s List every year he was enrolled and graduated 10th overall out of over 200 graduating law students. He was an associate editor on the St. Mary’s Law Review and also clerked for a Federal Judge while in school. Upon graduation, Mike immediately teamed up with his attorney and father, Pete, to form Weston Legal, a full service debt relief law firm. Since Pete practices exclusively in...
Mr. Thomas Adams McAvity III
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer with 19 years experience
(602) 598-5075 4742 N 24th Steeet
Suite 300
Phoenix, AZ 85016
Free ConsultationBankruptcy
Lewis & Clark College
Bankruptcy Attorney practicing in both Oregon, Washington and Arizona with offices in Vancouver, Seattle, Salem, Tacoma, Portland and Phoenix.

I have been practicing bankruptcy for close to two decades I am licensed in Oregon, Arizona and Washington. My firm offers online questionnaires, flexible payment plans and a commitment to not letting money get in the way of getting our clients under the protection of the bankruptcy laws.

We have retained a company to help our clients rebuild their credit after bankruptcy and we offer this service at no additional charge to our clients.
Joseph Collins
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Lawyer with 21 years experience
(602) 788-7227 3241 E Shea Blvd, Suite 1
Phoenix, AZ 85028
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Divorce, Personal Injury and Probate
Oklahoma City University School of Law
Attorney Focused on Family Law, Probate, Litigation and Wrongful Death Law Joseph has been practicing law since 1997. A graduate of Oklahoma City University School of Law, with honors. He attended Brigham Young University where he received his Bachelors Degree. Joseph is licensed to practice law before the Federal Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in San Francisco, California, and the Federal and State Courts in Arizona. Joseph has also appeared and practiced before various Indian Tribal Courts. Joseph has concentrated his practice in litigation focused in Family Law, Criminal Law, Civil Litigation, Personal Injury and...
Benjamin Wright
Claimed Lawyer ProfileBlawgsearchSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 10 years experience
(623) 552-4959 668 N 44th St
Suite 300
Phoenix, AZ 85008
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Criminal, Domestic Violence and Personal Injury
University of Wisconsin Law School
Attorney Wright earned his J.D. Degree from the University of Wisconsin Law School. Mr. Wright is licensed to practice law in the states of Arizona and Wisconsin, as well as the U.S. District Court of Arizona. Attorney Wright practices in the field of personal injury and will navigate you around any potential problems in a filing an injury claim, whether it be car accidents, truck accidents or slip and fall. Mr. Wright has years of experience in personal injury. Mr. Wright worked for injury law firms prior to starting his own practice and obtained valuable experience at those firms...
Andrew M. Ellis
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 22 years experience
(602) 524-8911 2601 N 16th St.
Phoenix, AZ 85006
Bankruptcy and Collections
James E. Rogers College of Law, University of Arizona
Ronald Thomas
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Phoenix, AZ Bankruptcy Attorney with 22 years experience
(602) 788-1395 11811 N. Tatum Blvd.
Suite 3031
Phoenix, AZ 85028
Bankruptcy, Arbitration & Mediation, Divorce and Family
Southwestern University School of Law
Mr. Thomas has been practicing law for almost a quarter century, virtually all of it in the practice areas of divorce, child custody, and bankruptcy. Mr. Thomas has a particular passion for defending husbands and fathers in divorce and custody cases, although he does not limit his clientele to men only. He also enjoys setting people free of debt through the use of federal bankruptcy laws. Mr. Thomas is skillful, knowledgeable, and dedicated to achieving the best possible results for his clients. Meet with Mr. Thomas for a consultation; you will find that he is straightforward and eager to help....
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Bankruptcy Lawyers in Nearby CitiesBankruptcy Lawyers in Nearby Counties

Considering Bankruptcy?

Bankruptcy law allows debtors, who are unable or partially unable to pay outstanding debts, to rid themselves of these debts and obtain a fresh start. Both federal and state laws can affect a debtor seeking to file for bankruptcy, and an attorney can help you understand how state and federal bankruptcy laws apply to you.

If you are struggling with high debt, receiving calls from creditors or collection agencies, or facing foreclosure, garnishment of wages, or repossession of property, filing for bankruptcy may provide you with solutions.

Bankruptcy lawyers offer legal advice and services during a financial crisis. In total, there are six different types of bankruptcy. For persons seeking debt relief, one option is Chapter 7 bankruptcy, which provides for liquidation of the debtor's non-exempt assets. Another popular option for individuals is Chapter 13, which allows for management and reduction of debt through payment plans. Corporations and partnerships filing for bankruptcy often choose to file under Chapter 11, which provides for supervised reorganization of the business.

Experienced bankruptcy counsel can help you evaluate whether you should pursue a bankruptcy as well as the Chapter under which to file. Bankruptcy lawyers can also help end harassing phone calls from debt collectors and evaluate available legal options when facing a home foreclosure.


Automatic stay: An injunction that automatically stops lawsuits, foreclosures, garnishments, and most collection activity against the debtor the moment a bankruptcy petition is filed.

Unsecured claim: A debt for which credit was extended based solely upon the creditor's assessment of the debtor's future ability to pay, rather than on a special assurance of payment.