Bull Valley, Illinois Bankruptcy Lawyers

Peter Francis Geraci
PREMIUM

15,000 5-Star Reviews from Satisfied Clients! 35+ offices open late/weekends.

Over 15,000 5-Star reviews from our satisfied clients! Since 1977, Geraci Law has helped over 100,000 people get debt-free by filing Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 bankruptcy. FREE LAWYER CONSULTATIONS, low/no attorney fees... Read More »
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Raffy A. 'Rae' Kaplan
PREMIUM

Exceptional Bankruptcy Law Attorney! Helping Chicago Families Get a Fresh Start!

I provide experienced and skilled advocacy for bankruptcy law needs. I am committed to helping clients effectively and efficiently resolve financial matters! Visit my website for client reviews, call for a consultation. Read More »
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Frank G. Cortese
PREMIUM

Illinois Bankruptcy Lawyer with 23 years experience

Frank G. Cortese is a Graduate of Georgetown University Law Center. He has successfully represented over 7,000 clients in Bankruptcy throughout the Chicagoland area. With over 23 Years experience, you can be confident... Read More »
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Jane E. Nagle
PREMIUM

Free Consultation! Aggressive & Dedicated Illinois Bankruptcy Law Attorney!

I provide exceptional legal representation in all aspects of bankruptcy law. I will work tirelessly to deliver the best possible results for your family! Visit my website for case results. Call for a free consultation. Read More »
10.0Justia Lawyer Rating for Jane E. Nagle View Profile
Scott W. Brammer
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
McHenry, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 26 years experience
(815) 344-4040 5447 Bull Valley Rd
McHenry, IL 60050
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Divorce, Family and Real Estate
University of South Dakota School of Law
Scott W. Brammer grew up in Crystal Lake, Illinois. He attended Illinois Wesleyan University in Bloomington, Illinois, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science. After graduating from the University of South Dakota School of Law in 1992, where he earned his Juris Doctor degree, Mr. Brammer was admitted to practice law in the State of Illinois. That same year, he was also admitted to practice in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois. Scott has spent over 18 years as an attorney in McHenry concentrating on family law, residential real...
McHenry, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer
(815) 578-0055 5447 West Bull Valley Road
McHenry, IL 60050
Bankruptcy
McHenry, IL Bankruptcy Attorney
(815) 385-6840 3431 W. Elm Street
McHenry, IL 60050
Bankruptcy
James Michael Kelly
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Crystal Lake, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer with 24 years experience
(815) 459-3120 01 North Virginia Street, Suite 150
Crystal Lake, IL 60014
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Divorce and Family
University of Missouri - Kansas City
James Kelly has practiced in the areas of divorce and bankruptcy for 21 years. The Law offices of James M. Kelly handles and enjoys complex cases and trial work. Divorce work, especially trial work, requires a certain competency that not all attorney's have. Regardless of your particular fact pattern you can be sure that that the Law Offices of James M. Kelly will handle your matter in an expeditious and professional manner. In matters involving bankruptcy and debt restructuring, the Law Offices of James M. Kelly takes all matters seriously and has an...
Timothy Brown
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Crystal Lake, IL Bankruptcy Attorney
(815) 569-4110 1520 Carlemont Drive
Suite M
Crystal Lake, IL 60014
Bankruptcy, Criminal, DUI and Divorce
Richard Van Den Bussche
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Crystal Lake, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 38 years experience
(815) 356-5531 455 Coventry Ln, Suite 107
Crystal Lake, IL 60014
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Criminal, Landlord Tenant and Probate
The John Marshall Law School
Bradley Covey
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Elgin, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 27 years experience
(847) 608-1313 2205 Point Blvd.
Suite 125A
Elgin, IL 60123
Free ConsultationBankruptcy
Northern Illinois University
Mr. Covey concentrates his practice in all chapters of bankruptcy and bankruptcy-related law with special emphasis in Chapter 7 and Chapter 13. Mr. Covey has concentrated his practice in consumer and business bankruptcy matters for the past 21 years. Mr. Covey graduated from Southern Illinois University in 1984 with a B.S in Journalism. He then earned his J.D. at Northern Illinois University College of Law in 1992.
Roxanna Hipple
Claimed Lawyer Profile
West Dundee, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer with 26 years experience
(847) 426-2900 303 W Main St
West Dundee, IL 60118
Bankruptcy, Estate Planning and Real Estate
DePaul College of Law
Stephen J. Costello
Claimed Lawyer ProfileResponsive Law
West Dundee, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 34 years experience
(847) 428-4544 600 Spring Hill Ring Road, Suite #116
West Dundee, IL 60118
Free ConsultationBankruptcy
Northern Illinois University
Costello Law was originally founded by Raymond J. Costello, in the early 1960s. Ray’s law practice always had a heavy concentration in Bankruptcy. He served for many years as a Bankruptcy Trustee.
In 1984, Stephen J. Costello, a son of Raymond, was admitted to law practice and joined the firm. Raymond passed away in 1994 and the firm continues to proudly carry his name.

Over the years, our firm’s bankruptcy experience has covered nearly every kind of possible bankruptcy matter. We have represented thousands of people of all walks of life in both simple and complex bankruptcy cases. We file Chapter 7...
Thomas C. O'Brien
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Antioch, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 53 years experience
(847) 838-1100 950 Main Street
Antioch, IL 60002
Bankruptcy, Divorce, Family and Foreclosure Defense
Washington University School of Law
We are experienced attorneys in bankruptcy and family law. Located just south of the Wisconsin-Illinois state line, I practice daily in both states. In this area, knowledge of the significant differences in the two states' laws is critical to effective and competent representation.
Julianne M. O'Grady
PREMIUM

Illinois Bankruptcy Attorney with 19 years experience

DePaul College of LawIllinois
10.0Justia Lawyer Rating for Julianne M. O'Grady View Profile
Richard Kelly
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Hebron, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 27 years experience
(815) 404-8522 P.O. Box 428
10008 Main St
Hebron, IL 60034
Bankruptcy, Criminal, DUI and Divorce
DePaul College of Law
Crystal Lake, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 28 years experience
(815) 459-3120 453 Coventry Ln
Crystal Lake, IL 60014
Bankruptcy, Business, Collections and Criminal
Crystal Lake, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer
(815) 479-8800 15 W Woodstock St
Crystal Lake, IL 60014
Bankruptcy, Divorce and Family
Crystal Lake, IL Bankruptcy Attorney
4 E Terra Cotta Ave
Crystal Lake, IL 60014
Bankruptcy, Business, Criminal and Divorce
Elgin, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer
(773) 227-2218 606 Dundee Avenue
Elgin, IL 60120
Bankruptcy
DePaul College of Law
Elgin, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer
606 Dundee Avenue
Elgin, IL 60120
Bankruptcy
Northern Illinois University College of Law
Grayslake, IL Bankruptcy Attorney
1099 N Corporate Cir
Grayslake, IL 60030
Bankruptcy and Real Estate
Elgin, IL Bankruptcy Attorney
(847) 742-8800 1250 Larkin Ave
Elgin, IL 60123
Bankruptcy and Business
West Dundee, IL Bankruptcy Attorney
(847) 428-6107 895 W Main St
West Dundee, IL 60118
Bankruptcy, Estate Planning and Real Estate
Palatine, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer
(847) 991-5800 20063 N Rand Rd
Palatine, IL 60074
Bankruptcy, International and Real Estate
Tina T Tran
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Chicago, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer with 3 years experience
(773) 609-3637 208 S. Jefferson St.
Ste. 204
Chicago, IL 60661
Free ConsultationBankruptcy and Criminal
Loyola University Chicago School of Law
Tina T. Tran (known to her close friends as Ty) is a second-generation Vietnamese American. As an ardent social justice advocate, Tina is committed to providing accessible, affordable, and affirming legal support and advocacy to people of all backgrounds and circumstances. She prides herself on giving her clients the fresh start they deserve, whether that be through filing for Bankruptcy, or through the Expungement and Sealing of criminal records. Tina grew up in the California Bay Area, and she learned early on about the wide discrepancies between people of different economic or racial backgrounds and their access to the...
Ariel Weissberg
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ASocial Media
Chicago, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 39 years experience
(312) 663-0004 401 South LaSalle Street Suit 403
Chicago, IL 60605
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Business, Foreclosure Defense and Real Estate
Saint Louis University School of Law
Ariel Weissberg is the managing partner of Weissberg and Associates, Ltd., 401 South LaSalle Street, Suite 403, Chicago, Illinois, 60605. Weissberg and Associates, Ltd. concentrates in the areas of business and commercial litigation, transactional matters and all aspects of insolvency and financial distress, including bankruptcy, loan work-outs and foreclosures. Mr. Weissberg founded Weissberg and Associates in July, 1984. Since then, he has built a varied and loyal clientele, comprised of small to medium-sized to publicly traded businesses, and individuals. He is sought out for complex business and financial planning, especially relating to credit facilities and crisis-management, and high-risk litigation....
Dennise McCann
Claimed Lawyer ProfileBlawgsearchSocial Media
Schaumburg, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer with 31 years experience
(847) 995-9999 1515 E. Woodfield Road
Suite 640
Schaumburg, IL 60173
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Divorce, Family and Foreclosure Defense
The John Marshall Law School
Dennise L. McCann is a Partner Anderson & Associates, P.C. who focuses on complex family law, bankruptcy and probate matters. She has been the managing attorney of the firm's Wheaton office since 2007. Dennise has been a certified mediator and guardian ad litem since 2010. She was nominated for an Inspirational Woman Award in 2012. She served as a career law clerk to the Honorable Susan Pierson Sonderby from 1988 to 1992 and was responsible for reviewing her daily motion call, researching legal issues, drafting opinions and writing speech materials for continuing legal education programs. She graduated from The John...
John J. Lynch
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial MediaResponsive Law
Palatine, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 19 years experience
(630) 283-7091 800 East Northwest Highway
Suite 700
Palatine, IL 60074
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Foreclosure Defense, Probate and Real Estate
Nova Southeastern University
John Lynch became interested in debt relief and bankruptcy before he went to Law School. John was employed at Eastern Airlines in Miami, Florida, which at that time was the second largest airline in the US. Eastern Airlines filed for bankruptcy in 1990 and by 1991 it had closed its doors. John knew so many people that could not find work, had cars repossessed and faced mounting debt. Then, in 1992 Hurricane Andrew hit South Florida and Pan Am airlines also closed its doors. By that time John was a Paralegal and owner of a Title Company. He worked as...
Mazyar M. Hedayat Esq.
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ABlawgsearchSocial MediaResponsive Law
Romeoville, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 24 years experience
(630) 378-2200 1211 W Lakeview Ct
Romeoville, IL 60446
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Construction, Foreclosure Defense and Real Estate
University of Michigan - Ann Arbor, DePaul University and University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
Mazyar M. Hedayat is the principal of M. Hedayat & Associates, PC, a law firm that has represented Clients for nearly 25 years in the areas of business law and litigation, bankruptcy law and litigation, real property transactions and litigation, construction law and mechanics liens, corporate law, and more. After attending the University of Chicago and University of Michigan, Mr. Hedayat received his MBA from the U.M. Ross School of Business, and his J.D. from DePaul University College of Law. Mr. Hedayat is a title insurance agent and operated a full-service title company for 6 years....
Terrance S Leeders
Claimed Lawyer ProfileBlawgsearchSocial Media
(312) 346-7400 205 W Randolph St. Suite #1401
Chicago, IL 60606
Free ConsultationChicago, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 21 years experience
Bankruptcy
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School
Bankruptcy attorney in Chicago with 20+ years bankruptcy experience. I handle all aspects of chapter 7 and chapter 13 cases in Chicagoland. I offer free consultations to help get you the advice you need to make an educated decision about the bankruptcy filing process. Contact me to get the fresh start you deserve.

I am a member of the American Bankruptcy Institute, the Chicago Bar Association and the Illinois Bar Association. I have filed thousands of bankruptcy cases in Illinois and have eliminated millions of dollars in debt from credit cards, medical bills, repossessions,...
David P Leibowitz
Claimed Lawyer ProfileBlawgsearchSocial Media
Waukegan, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer with 45 years experience
(847) 249-9100 420 W. Clayton Street
Waukegan, IL 60085
Bankruptcy and Consumer
Loyola University Chicago School of Law
Steven H. Mevorah
Claimed Lawyer ProfileBlawgsearchSocial Media
(630) 443-0600 https://bankruptcy.mevorahlaw.com/
333 N. Randall Road, Suite 104
St. Charles, IL 60175
Free ConsultationSt. Charles, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer with 40 years experience
Bankruptcy, Criminal, Divorce and Family
Northern Illinois University
Steven H. Mevorah is the founder of Mevorah Law Offices LLC and began his practice in 1979. Mr. Mevorah brings significant experience to bear in achieving positive results for his clients. With offices in Lombard, Bloomingdale, Chicago, Joliet, and St. Charles, Mr. Mevorah makes his practice accessible to all of those in need throughout the Chicagoland area and surrounding counties. Since the firm's inception, Mr. Mevorah has been committed to building a practice made up of attorneys who share his vision and dedication to offering clients the best legal advice and advocacy combined with unparalleled service. Taking an aggressive...
Jason G. Shore
Claimed Lawyer ProfileBlawgsearchSocial Media
St. Charles, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 9 years experience
(630) 443-0600 https://bankruptcy.mevorahlaw.com/
333 N. Randall Road, Suite 104
St. Charles, IL 60175
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Divorce, Family and Immigration
DePaul College of Law
Mr. Shore is acutely aware that when an individual contacts Mevorah Law Offices LLC about a legal problem, that for the client it is also a personal problem. In addition to litigating or negotiating settlements in many major cases, Mr. Shore is a skilled listener who is adept at developing and implementing cost effective and winning strategies. Mr. Shore represents divorce and parentage clients in settlement negotiations, pre-trials, hearings, and trials. Mr. Shore is also appointed by the Court to represent minors in custody proceedings. As an appointed guardian for the children (referred to as a Guardian Ad Litem...
Tina (Christine) Adams
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial MediaResponsive Law
Waukegan, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 13 years experience
(847) 223-5500 228 N Genesee
Waukegan, IL 60085
Free ConsultationBankruptcy and Personal Injury
John Marshall Law School
Tina Adams has been with Robert J. Adams & Associates full time since 1993. After law school, Tina became the managing partner at Robert J. Adams & Associations. Tina like her father concentrates in Consumer Bankruptcy. In addition, Tina works with business bankruptcy and Personal Injury cases. Tina is the Lake County attorney for Robert J. Adams & Associates. Additionally, in 2005 Tina became a part time adjunct instructor at the College of Lake County.
Thomas Keith Mirabile
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Wheaton, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer with 43 years experience
(630) 665-6904 1745 South Naperville Road Suite 200
Wheaton, IL 60189
Bankruptcy, Health Care and Immigration
Oklahoma City University School of Law and DePaul College of Law
40 years experience in Immigration and International Law, Complex Bankruptcy and Health law Visiting Professor of International Law DePaul University College of Law Global Faculty International Law, Faculty of Law ,University of Liverpool School of Law U.K. Advanced law degree (LL.M) DePaul University
Lisa M. Nyuli
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
South Elgin, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 29 years experience
(847) 695-2400 2000 McDonald Road
Suite 200
South Elgin, IL 60177
Bankruptcy, Divorce and Family
Northern Illinois University
Lisa M. Nyuli has been a partner since joining the firm of Ariano Hardy Ritt Nyuli Richmond Lytle & Goettel P.C. in 2000. Prior to joining the firm, for the first 10 years of her career, she worked as an attorney in Aurora, Illinois and in Geneva, Illinois. She was licensed in 1989 and focuses her practice primarily in all areas of family law. In 2008, she became a Fellow of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers.

Ms. Nyuli is also active in the Illinois State Bar Association as a member, having served two terms on the Board of Governors, and...
Majdel S. Musa
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
La Grange, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer with 15 years experience
(708) 326-2500 112 Calendar Avenue
La Grange, IL 60525
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Business and Real Estate
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School
Dr. Maudia Norman Washingon
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Elgin, IL Bankruptcy Attorney
(888) 586-4441 40 DuPage Court
Suite 113
Elgin, IL 60120
Bankruptcy, Arbitration & Mediation, Business and Foreclosure Defense
Michigan State University
Michigan State University School of Law, East Lansing, Michigan
Juris Doctorate

John Marshall School of Law, Chicago Illinois
LLM (Law of Masters Candidate) Real Estate Law

Argosy University, Chicago Illinois
Doctorate of Business Administration, International Business
Published Dissertation

Robert Morris University, Chicago, Illinois
Master in Business Administration, Concentration Management

Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois
Bachelor of Arts, Administration of Justice, Minor: Sociology

LAW LICENSES:

Illinois
Northern District of Illinois
Central District Court of Illinois
Southern District Court of Illinois
United States Tax Court

I am an attorney who is passionate about my profession and clients. I believe in providing top-notch, innovative, cutting-edge strategies and advice. My clients feel as if they are my only client. ...
Tracey A. Hower
Claimed Lawyer ProfileResponsive Law
Hoffman Estates, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 10 years experience
(630) 797-5505 2300 Barrington Rd.
Hoffman Estates, IL 60169
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Divorce, Family and Immigration
Northern Illinois University
With over a decade of experience, Ms. Hower is highly regarded by local Judges in the surrounding counties. She is a Certified GAL and Mediator in Kane and DuPage Counties. She is compassionate about her clients and vigorously advocates for her clients' needs, both in the courtroom and with opposing counsel during negotiations, never losing sight of what is important to her clients. Ms. Hower takes the time to develop a perspective of the entire case and uses her negotiation, litigation, and business experiences to creatively and successfully advocate for her clients.

The Hower Law Firm LLC is focused on meeting...
Jane E. Nagle
Claimed Lawyer ProfileLII GoldBlawgsearchSocial Media
(630) 407-1200 400 S Knoll St
#B
Wheaton, IL 60187
Free ConsultationWheaton, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer with 6 years experience
Bankruptcy, Divorce, Domestic Violence and Family
DePaul College of Law
Jane E. Nagle is a licensed attorney with a concentration in the practice areas of divorce and family law as well as bankruptcy and debtors’ rights in DuPage, Cook, Will, Kane, Kendall, McHenry, Lake and surrounding collar counties. Jane received her law degree from DePaul University College of Law in 2012. She also graduated from Indiana University – Bloomington in 2006 with her Bachelor of Arts in both International Studies and Spanish with a minor in Italian. During law school, Jane worked as an extern for the Honorable Judge Michael Panter in both the Domestic Relations...
Kiley Whitty
Claimed Lawyer Profile
(630) 690-6800 1761 S. Naperville Rd.
Suite 201
Wheaton, IL 60189
Free ConsultationWheaton, IL Bankruptcy Attorney with 9 years experience
Bankruptcy, Divorce, Family and Foreclosure Defense
Loyola University Chicago School of Law
Kiley M. Whitty is a licensed attorney specializing in the areas of family law, child custody, bankruptcy, and creditor negotiations in Cook, DuPage, Kane, Will and surrounding collar counties. While in law school at Loyola University Chicago School of Law, Kiley earned a certificate in Child and Family Law as well as a certificate in Advocacy which aided in her success as a litigator. As an associate with Anderson & Associates, P.C., Kiley has handled complex custody cases involving issues with legal and residential custody, parenting time, allegations of abuse and neglect, and child removal. Kiley has also handled a...
Lynda Wesley
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Palatine, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer with 36 years experience
(847) 358-4778 800 E. Northwest Hwy.
Suite 700
Palatine, IL 60074
Free ConsultationBankruptcy
Chicago-Kent College of Law, Illinois Institute of Technology
My practice concentrates on Chapter 7 Bankruptcy. I have done hundreds of bankruptcies in 35 years of practice. I have lots of practical ideas to save you money and then help you rebuild your credit rating.
Eric Zelazny
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Chicago, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer with 24 years experience
(708) 444-4333 20 N. Clark Street
Suite 800
Chicago, IL 60602
Bankruptcy, Foreclosure Defense and Tax
University of Missouri - Kansas City School of Law
Eric Zelazny brings over 17 years of legal experience to the practice. Prior to studying law, Eric Zelazny was a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) and continues his education in bankruptcy law staying up-to-date on the latest laws. He is one of the most experienced bankruptcy lawyers in the Chicago area with trial experience in Cook County, DuPage County, and Will County. Eric Zelazny occupies offices in both Chicago and Tinley Park.
Juneithaa S Shambee
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Evanston, IL Bankruptcy Lawyer with 7 years experience
(773) 741-3602 701 Main Street
Suite 203
Evanston, IL 60202
Bankruptcy, Criminal, Family and IP
Northern Illinois University
A Chicago native, Juneitha Shambee has shown passion and dedication to law since a young age. Working vigorously to make strides in her education, she uses that same tenaciousness to achieve results in every case she touches. She has taken on challenges beyond what many attorneys her age would face, personally and professionally, such as battling large firms in copyright issues and achieving excellent settlements for her clients, and even taking on challenging criminal cases and getting them dismissed in the preliminary stages. Although Juneitha is the first college graduate and professional in her family, she did not let...
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Bankruptcy Lawyers in Nearby Cities

Bankruptcy Lawyers in Nearby Counties

Bull Valley Bankruptcy Legal Aid & Pro Bono Services

Prairie State Legal Services, Inc.
(815) 344-9113
McHenry, IL

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Considering Bankruptcy?

Bankruptcy law allows debtors, who are unable or partially unable to pay outstanding debts, to rid themselves of these debts and obtain a fresh start. Both federal and state laws can affect a debtor seeking to file for bankruptcy, and an attorney can help you understand how state and federal bankruptcy laws apply to you.

If you are struggling with high debt, receiving calls from creditors or collection agencies, or facing foreclosure, garnishment of wages, or repossession of property, filing for bankruptcy may provide you with solutions.

Bankruptcy lawyers offer legal advice and services during a financial crisis. In total, there are six different types of bankruptcy. For persons seeking debt relief, one option is Chapter 7 bankruptcy, which provides for liquidation of the debtor's non-exempt assets. Another popular option for individuals is Chapter 13, which allows for management and reduction of debt through payment plans. Corporations and partnerships filing for bankruptcy often choose to file under Chapter 11, which provides for supervised reorganization of the business.

Experienced bankruptcy counsel can help you evaluate whether you should pursue a bankruptcy as well as the Chapter under which to file. Bankruptcy lawyers can also help end harassing phone calls from debt collectors and evaluate available legal options when facing a home foreclosure.


Automatic stay: An injunction that automatically stops lawsuits, foreclosures, garnishments, and most collection activity against the debtor the moment a bankruptcy petition is filed.

Unsecured claim: A debt for which credit was extended based solely upon the creditor's assessment of the debtor's future ability to pay, rather than on a special assurance of payment.