Staten Island, New York Bankruptcy Lawyers

Stephen Z. Starr
PREMIUM

New York Bankruptcy Attorney with 27 years experience

University of Southern California Gould School of LawCalifornia, District of Columbia, New Jersey and New York
View Profile
Stephen Bilkis
PREMIUM

Free Consultation! Highly Experienced Bankruptcy Law Attorney! Skilled Advocacy!

I am a knowledgeable and effective bankruptcy lawyer. I am committed to providing personal service and the best possible results! Visit my website for more information about your rights, call for a free consultation. Read More »
10.0Justia Lawyer Rating for Stephen Bilkis View Profile
Mark S. Anderson
PREMIUM

New York Bankruptcy Attorney

University of Baltimore School of LawNew York
View Profile
Joseph Andrew Gershman
PREMIUM

Skilled & Dedicated Legal Representation for Your Complex Bankruptcy Matters!

I am an experienced and knowledgeable bankruptcy law attorney. I am committed to aggressive representation for all of your complex bankruptcy litigation needs! Visit my website for case results, call for a consultation. Read More »
View Profile
Robert Stumpf
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Staten Island, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 17 years experience
(718) 288-9316 7307 Amboy Road
Staten Island, NY 10307
Bankruptcy
Robert DeZego
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Staten Island, NY Bankruptcy Attorney
(917) 699-7239 129 New Dorp Plaza
Staten Island, NY 10306
Bankruptcy, Foreclosure Defense, Landlord Tenant and Real Estate
Staten Island, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 43 years experience
(718) 442-4424 1200 South Ave
Staten Island, NY 10314
Bankruptcy and Business
University at Buffalo Law School
Staten Island, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 56 years experience
(718) 448-9500 350 St Marks Pl
Staten Island, NY 10301
Bankruptcy and Real Estate
Staten Island, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 27 years experience
(718) 816-0005 60 Bay St
Staten Island, NY 10301
Bankruptcy, Civil Rights, Social Security Disability and Workers' Comp
Staten Island, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 28 years experience
(917) 301-1868 57 BEACH STREET, 3RD FLOOR
Staten Island, NY 10304
Bankruptcy
Staten Island, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 23 years experience
(718) 698-0194 160 Dinsmore St
Staten Island, NY 10314
Bankruptcy, Divorce, Family and Real Estate
Rutgers School Of Law
Staten Island, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 51 years experience
(718) 720-6060 30 Bay St
Staten Island, NY 10301
Bankruptcy
Staten Island, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 15 years experience
(718) 967-2148 4218 Amboy Rd
Staten Island, NY 10308
Bankruptcy, Real Estate and Tax
Staten Island, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 28 years experience
(718) 273-2525 1688 Victory Blvd
Staten Island, NY 10314
Bankruptcy and Real Estate
Albany Law
William Neville
PREMIUM

New York Bankruptcy Attorney with 34 years experience

Fordham University School of LawU.S. Supreme Court, United States District Courts for the Eastern Districts of New York, United States District Courts for the Southern Districts of New York and New York
View Profile
Vildan Erturk Starr
PREMIUM

New York Bankruptcy Attorney with 29 years experience

University of Ankara, Faculty of Law and Georgetown University Law CenterRepublic of Turkey (Istanbul Bar) , California and New York
View Profile
Staten Island, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 31 years experience
(718) 442-4424 1200 South Ave
Staten Island, NY 10314
Bankruptcy and Business
Cédric Teissier
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Paris, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer
(331) 407-3120 21, avenue George V
Paris, NY 75015
Bankruptcy, Energy, Environmental and Estate Planning
Michael Leslie Walker
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Brooklyn, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 12 years experience
(718) 680-9700 9052 Fort Hamilton Parkway
Second Floor Suite
Brooklyn, NY 11209
Bankruptcy, Criminal, Divorce and Foreclosure Defense
Albany Law School
Michael L. Walker graduated cum laude from Queens College, City University of New York in 2003, with a double major in Philosophy and Political Science. While in college, Mr. Walker was elected to the Pi Sigma Alpha and Golden Key Honor Societies. Following college, Mr. Walker enrolled in Albany Law School of Union University, where he graduated in 2006 with a concentration in Business Law. Upon being admitted to the bar in New York and Massachusetts in 2007, Mr. Walker worked in Manhattan at a boutique immigration law firm. He then opened his private practice in...
Stephen Bilkis
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ALII GoldBlawgsearchSocial Media
(800) 696-9529 26 Court St
#2410
Brooklyn, NY 11242
Free ConsultationBrooklyn, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 22 years experience
Bankruptcy, Consumer, Criminal and Divorce
Touro Law School
Free Consultation | (800) 696-9529 | Call 24/7 | Stephen Bilkis is the managing Partner of the New York Law firm Stephen Bilkis & Associates, PLLC. Aggressively representing clients in their legal needs.
Mr. John P. Fazzio III Esq.
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New York, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 13 years experience
(201) 529-8024 26 Broadway, 21st Floor
New York, NY 10004
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Business, Foreclosure Defense and Tax
New York University School of Law and Brooklyn Law School
John Fazzio is an aggressive young trial lawyer who is a fierce advocate for his clients in and out of the courtroom. He lives for David and Goliath type contests. John is not afraid to go to trial and has gone all the way to verdict on varied cases including foreclosure, bankruptcy, tax, intellectual property, criminal, and personal injury. John has also prosecuted a number of appeals cases. John regularly practices in the State and Federal Courts in New York and New Jersey.
Mr. Robert J. Nahoum Esq.
Claimed Lawyer ProfileBlawgsearchSocial Media
Brooklyn, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 18 years experience
(718) 514-6026 48 Willoughby St.
Brooklyn, NY 11201
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Business, Collections and Consumer
Albany Law School of Union University
ROBERT J. NAHOUM has extensive experience in all areas of litigation before federal and state courts from preliminary injunctions to trials to appeals. He handles complex disputes in a wide variety of fields representing both individuals and businesses. CLIENT WORK In his Individual Practice, Robert has acted as a zealous advocate protecting the consumer protection rights of his clients including those afforded under the Federal Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Fair Credit Reporting act and other laws. Robert is devoted to protecting the consumer protection rights of his clients including stopping illegal debt collection practices and keeping distressed...
Leonard R. Boyer
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&A
(718) 286-9132 3145 Coney Island Ave
Brooklyn, NY 11235
Free ConsultationBrooklyn, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 34 years experience
Bankruptcy, Divorce, Foreclosure Defense and Real Estate
New York Law School
Although my firm practices in several different fields of law, my expertise is primarily in Mortgage Foreclosure Defense,Divorce & Family Law, Bankruptcy, and Mortgage loan modification. In terms of divorce law, I have a unique prospective from both my personal and professional experience that few other attorneys can match. To me, each case is personal, each client is a person, never just a file number.
Stephen Z. Starr
Claimed Lawyer ProfileLII GoldBlawgsearchSocial Media
New York, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 27 years experience
(888) 867-8165 260 Madison Ave
17th Floor
New York, NY 10016
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Arbitration & Mediation, Collections and Foreclosure Defense
University of Southern California Gould School of Law
Ronald S. Cook
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Brooklyn, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 15 years experience
(917) 464-3815 44 Court Street
Brooklyn, NY 11201
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Tax and Traffic Tickets
New York Law School
Attorney Cook is an experienced attorney and has been profiled as an expert on the New York Law Journal website. He has extensive experience in resolving legal issues and has authored numerous books, articles, and videos. He has assisted thousands of clients. He has decades of expertise with debt related matters including bankruptcy, loan modifications, foreclosure defense, short sales, judgments, wage garnishments, work outs, debt elimination, debt reduction, debt consolidation, and deed in lieu of foreclosure. Attorney Cook is experienced in working with individuals, couples, business owners, Law Firms, Fortune 500 Firms, and Wall Street Firms. Attorney Cook achieved straight...
Michael David Siegel
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&A
New York, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 28 years experience
(212) 721-5300 One Penn Plaza
Suite 2414
New York, NY 10119
Bankruptcy, Business, Foreclosure Defense and Real Estate
University of Chicago
Check out my background at my website, www.siegelandsiegel.com.
Demetrios K. Tsatis
PREMIUM

New York Bankruptcy Lawyer

Touro College and The City University of New York School of LawNew York
View Profile
Jesus A. Cachaya Jr.
PREMIUM

New York Bankruptcy Attorney with 10 years experience

Capital University Law SchoolU.S. District Court, Eastern District of New York, U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York and New York
View Profile
Naresh Menghraj Gehi
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Ozone Park, , NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 24 years experience
Liberty Avenue,
Ozone Park, , NY 11417
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Business, Family and Immigration
The University of Georgia School of Law and New Law College
Naresh Gehi is too experienced Immigration attorney licences in the Eastern and Southern district of New York and Connecticut. Mr Naresh Gehi practiced in New York and Connecticut, the US Southern and Eastern District courts of New York. Attorney Gehi holds a master of laws from the University of Georgia, especially sophisticated in Immigration laws. Naresh Gehi successfully challenged many Immigration and deportation cases and helping the Immigrants to get out of the legal problems for the last 13 years in New York. Along with the other Immigration lawyers launched an Immigration law firm called Gehi & Associates. This...
Derek John Soltis
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ASocial Media
New york, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 4 years experience
(844) 533-3367 276 Fifth Avenue, Suite 704
New york, NY 10001
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Employment, Foreclosure Defense and Probate
Rutgers School of Law-Newark
Derek J. Soltis, Esq. is graduate of Rutgers School of Law Newark and an admitted attorney in the State of New York. Mr. Soltis also has an MBA in Management Systems with an International Business Designation from Fordham University Graduate School of Business and a Master of Science in Information and Communication Systems where he specialized in System Dynamics. While at Fordham Mr. Soltis graduated in the top 10% of class and was enrolled in Phi Kappa Phi the Collegiate Honor Society and Beta Gamma Sigma the Business Honors Society. Mr. Soltis's undergraduate degree is a BBA from the University...
Jason Louis Karavias
Claimed Lawyer Profile
New York, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 17 years experience
(718) 729-5959 445 Park Avenue, 9th Floor
New York, NY 10022
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Divorce and Immigration
Boston University School of Law
Jason Karavias, Esq. provides personalized legal representation and advice to his clients in the fields of bankruptcy, matrimonial and immigration law
Benjamin Adams
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New York, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 24 years experience
1133 Broadway
Suite 406
New York, NY 10010
Free ConsultationBankruptcy and Real Estate
Brooklyn Law School
Benjamin M. Adams, the founder and principal of Adams Law Group, LLC, has a record of excellence that shows in his legal education and in his legal career.
Michael Louis Hurwitz
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New York, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 13 years experience
(212) 221-9890 342 West 47th Street
1 FL
New York, NY 10036
Bankruptcy, Collections, Consumer and Foreclosure Defense
The Hurwitz Law Firm, P.C. is a legal practice in New York handling personal injury, debt collection defense, foreclosure defense and bankruptcy cases, among other matters. We have helped numerous New Yorkers navigate the legal process. Our firm is committed to providing results-oriented legal representation, and we are not afraid to take a stand against major debt collectors and other companies. Give us a call today at (212) 221-9890 to receive your free case review. Se Habla Español
Anthony J. Gallo
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New York, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 22 years experience
(646) 201-9100 777 Third Avenue
22nd Floor
New York, NY 10017
Bankruptcy, Entertainment & Sports and Real Estate
Hofstra University
Anthony J. Gallo, a Partner in Tully Rinckey PLLC’s New York City office, focuses his practice on real estate law and bankruptcy law. In addition to his extensive background in real estate and general civil litigation, Anthony brings an added dimension of experience in entertainment law matters with a particular expertise in music industry affairs. He is licensed to practice in New York State, the U.S. District Court (Southern and Eastern and Districts of New York) and the U.S. Second Circuit Court of Appeals.

Prior to joining Tully Rinckey, Anthony was a managing member of AJ Gallo Associates, PC, where he...
Simon Goldenberg
Claimed Lawyer ProfileBlawgsearchSocial Media
Brooklyn, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 9 years experience
(347) 389-0245 818 East 16th Street
Brooklyn, NY 11230
Bankruptcy
Hofstra University
Attorney Goldenberg is the founder of the New York law firm, the Law Office of Simon Goldenberg, PLLC. Mr. Goldenberg acknowledges how stressful it is to be in a position of financial difficulty, and he strives to help every client obtain relief from their debts. Whether you are considering filing for bankruptcy or being harassed by debt collectors, you can trust that Attorney Goldenberg will provide you with trusted counsel and an effective solution. To find out more about retaining Mr. Goldenberg’s representation, contact the firm today!
John Chul-joon Kim
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Brooklyn, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 20 years experience
(718) 210-4794 50 Court Street, Suite 708
Brooklyn, NY 11201
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Divorce, Foreclosure Defense and Real Estate
Boston University School of Law
John C. Kim was born in Seoul, South Korea and immigrated to the United States in 1971 as a five year old. Brought up by business owning parents in Baltimore, Maryland, he is proudly both Korean and American, embracing the best of both worlds. As a seasoned, respected attorney for nearly 20 years who handles cases across multiple practices areas that focus on debt resolution and dispute resolution for individuals and businesses, he has practiced in New York City since 1999, across all the boroughs of New York City and in Federal Courts in New Jersey. The firm Mr. Kim...
Robert J. Howard
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New York, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 20 years experience
(212) 684-0300 915 Broadway
Suite 900
New York, NY 10010
Bankruptcy, Business, Construction and Real Estate
Touro College
Mr. Howard is Of Counsel to the firm and concentrates his practice in commercial, real estate and construction law, including contract claims, shareholder disputes, and complex litigation. Before entering private practice, he was an Assistant Corporation Counsel for the New York City Law Department, Commercial and Real Estate Litigation Division, where he represented and advised institutional and municipal clients on capital project litigation and administrative policy. He earned his B.A. in economics, with honors, from the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and his J.D., with honors, from Touro College Law School. He is admitted to the Bars...
Louis A Russo
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial MediaResponsive Law
New York, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 11 years experience
(929) 262-1101 276 Fifth Avenue
Suite 704
New York, NY 10001
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Arbitration & Mediation, Business and Securities
Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University
I help domestic and international businesses and their directors and officers resolve complex commercial litigation disputes through practical and economical pre-suit negotiations and, if necessary, litigation (federal and state), arbitration, and mediation.

For all of my clients, I strive to understand their businesses as well as they do and work efficiently to achieve their desired outcomes hopefully without need for litigation. All of my clients have come to expect that I will provide frank but value-added legal advice that empowers them to consider salient risks and act decisively.

I have successfully represented clients in a wide range of disputes involving corporate...
Martha L. Osorio
PREMIUM

New York Bankruptcy Lawyer with 38 years experience

Colombia and New York
View Profile
Terry L. Hazen
PREMIUM

New York Bankruptcy Lawyer

Benjamin N. Cardozo School of LawNew York, U.S. Supreme Court, United States District Courts for the Eastern Districts of New York and United States District Courts for the Southern Districts of New York
View Profile
Leslie H. Tayne
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Manhattan, NY Bankruptcy Lawyer
(212) 537-4420 60 East 42nd Street
Manhattan, NY 10165
Bankruptcy
Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center
Leslie H. Tayne, Esq. has almost 20 years experience in the practice area of consumer and business financial debt-related services. She launched her law firm, Tayne Law Group, P.C., formerly Law Offices Of Leslie H. Tayne P.C., in 2001, which is one of the few New York State law practices concentrating in debt management, debt resolution and bankruptcy alternatives for consumers, small business owners and professionals who are in need of help with managing finances. Leslie and her firm deliver comprehensive consulting and support services for clients in all areas of debt including credit cards, unsecured loans, lines of credit...
Stephen Barry Kass
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New York, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 27 years experience
(212) 843-0050 225 Broadway
Ste 711
New York, NY 10007
Free ConsultationBankruptcy and Tax
New York University School of Law and Maurice A. Deane School of Law at Hofstra University
NYC Based Bankruptcy & Tax Attorney handling corporate and consumer cases. Chapter 11 filings in New York for high tax debt and other business problems. Consumer Discharges for credit card and mortgage problems. Tax Court filings in NYC, Offer in compromise filings, intallment agreements.
Adam J. Heckler
Claimed Lawyer ProfileBlawgsearchSocial Media
New York, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 6 years experience
(212) 696-1999 350 Fifth Avenue
Suite 4640
New York, NY 10118
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Business, Employment and Securities
St. John's University School of Law
John Tollefsen
Claimed Lawyer Profile
New York, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 45 years experience
(212) 964-1960 5 Penn Plaza, 23rd Floor
New York, NY 10001
Bankruptcy, Appeals, Business and International
Suffolk University, Willamette University and University of Washington School of Law
John is a international lawyer with multiple post graduate degrees from both U.S. and European schools. He is a certified Fraud Examiner and Certified Controls Specialist. He has extensive multifaceted experience in business law and litigation.
Arthur Lebedin
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New York, NY Bankruptcy Attorney
(888) 605-2705 26 Broadway
27th Floor
New York, NY 10004
Bankruptcy
Suffolk University
If you are looking for a debt relief attorney in New York City, you have come to the right place! At the law firm of Lebedin Kofman, you can receive the help you’ve been searching for form Attorney Arthur Lebedin. He obtained his undergraduate degree from Hunter College of the University of New York City. He later obtained his law degree at Suffolk University Law School. Attorney Lebedin gained valuable experience working as a legal intern for the Massachusetts Division of Consumer Affairs and Business Regulation. He has experience with credit card/debt settlements and student loan debt. He can help...
David Sheridan Waltzer
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Brooklyn , NY Bankruptcy Lawyer with 16 years experience
(888) 332-8511 16 Court Street
26th Floor
Brooklyn , NY 11241
Free ConsultationBankruptcy
Rutgers School of Law-Newark
What makes our bankruptcy law firm (Waltzer Law Group) stand out? Why should you chose us? We believe that consumer bankruptcy is one of the very few areas of practice where you get an opportunity to improve the lives of your clients and their families. There is a multitude of reasons why people find themselves facing overwhelming debt, often it's not even their fault. Whether from the bad economy, divorce, loss of income, or medical illness, these people deserve help and a fresh financial start. Bankruptcy law gives me the opportunity to help people who find themselves in these difficult financial...
Cristina M. Lipan
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ASocial Media
Brooklyn, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 8 years experience
(855) 965-1515 26 Court Street
Suite 1908
Brooklyn, NY 11242
Free ConsultationBankruptcy and Workers' Comp
Hofstra University
Cristina Lipan has significant experience representing both secured and unsecured creditors in various aspects of commercial bankruptcy and reorganization litigation. Ms. Lipan has regularly represented parties in bankruptcy litigation, including preference and fraudulent transfer litigation, claims litigation matters, and property of the estate matters. Representing creditors is no easy task yet Ms. Lipan has successfully negotiated numerous settlements and stipulations.

A local New York State graduate, Ms. Lipan is admitted to practice in the Southern and Eastern Districts of New York Bankruptcy Courts. After graduating law school she worked as an associate attorney, representing creditors in various commercial bankruptcy matters. Ms....
Jessica McHale
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New York, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 5 years experience
(888) 630-1688 100 Park Ave. 16th Floor
New York, NY 10017
Bankruptcy and Criminal
Florida Coastal School of Law
Jessica McHale received her Juris Doctorate degree from the Florida Coastal School of Law in May of 2013. While in law school, she was a part of the Moot Court Honor Board. Before going to law school, she attended St. John Fisher College in Rochester and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in Communications & Journalism. She also received a minor in Management. Jessica worked as a legal intern with the Office of the State Attorney of the 7th Judicial Circuit in St. Augustine. During that time, she assisted in the pretrial process, specifically in the felony criminal division...
Rafael Ariel Poltielov
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Forest Hills, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 7 years experience
(718) 520-0085 118-21 Queens Boulevard
Suite 603
Forest Hills, NY 11375
Free ConsultationBankruptcy, Business, Foreclosure Defense and Real Estate
Touro College
Kristin R. White
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New York, NY Bankruptcy Attorney with 20 years experience
(646) 328-2522 295 Madison Avenue, 12th Fl
New York, NY 10017
Bankruptcy, Estate Planning and Probate
Boston College Law School
Kristin R. White is a graduate of Boston College Law School. Upon completing her education, she served two judicial clerkships at the trial and appellate levels in Massachusetts. Ms. White is a former Assistant Attorney General for the State of New York and spent several years practicing in private law firms in New York City. She has also received appointments as a guardian ad litem in the Surrogate’s Court in New York.
Lawyer Rating
Years of Experience
Language
Fees
Profile Strength

Bankruptcy Lawyers in Nearby Cities

Bankruptcy Lawyers in Nearby Counties

Staten Island Bankruptcy Legal Aid & Pro Bono Services

Upsolve
(347) 850-2656
Brooklyn, NY


Brooklyn Bar Association Volunteer Lawyers Project, Inc.
(718) 624-3894
Brooklyn, NY

Show More

Considering Bankruptcy?

Bankruptcy law allows debtors, who are unable or partially unable to pay outstanding debts, to rid themselves of these debts and obtain a fresh start. Both federal and state laws can affect a debtor seeking to file for bankruptcy, and an attorney can help you understand how state and federal bankruptcy laws apply to you.

If you are struggling with high debt, receiving calls from creditors or collection agencies, or facing foreclosure, garnishment of wages, or repossession of property, filing for bankruptcy may provide you with solutions.

Bankruptcy lawyers offer legal advice and services during a financial crisis. In total, there are six different types of bankruptcy. For persons seeking debt relief, one option is Chapter 7 bankruptcy, which provides for liquidation of the debtor's non-exempt assets. Another popular option for individuals is Chapter 13, which allows for management and reduction of debt through payment plans. Corporations and partnerships filing for bankruptcy often choose to file under Chapter 11, which provides for supervised reorganization of the business.

Experienced bankruptcy counsel can help you evaluate whether you should pursue a bankruptcy as well as the Chapter under which to file. Bankruptcy lawyers can also help end harassing phone calls from debt collectors and evaluate available legal options when facing a home foreclosure.


Automatic stay: An injunction that automatically stops lawsuits, foreclosures, garnishments, and most collection activity against the debtor the moment a bankruptcy petition is filed.

Unsecured claim: A debt for which credit was extended based solely upon the creditor's assessment of the debtor's future ability to pay, rather than on a special assurance of payment.