Essex, Connecticut Criminal Lawyers

Salvatore Bonanno
PREMIUM

Connecticut Criminal Law Lawyer with 31 years experience

Hartford Attorney Salvatore Bonanno has over 30 years experience as a litigation lawyer, focusing on the defense of clients facing criminal charges, DUI/DWI charges and domestic violence charges. Located directly in... Read More »
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Ron Murphy
PREMIUM

Free Consultation! Criminal Defense Attorney Devoted to Defending Your Liberty!

I am an experienced and skilled Connecticut criminal defense lawyer. I help defend the reputations and liberty of those accused of criminal misconduct! Visit my website for results, call for a free case evaluation! Read More »
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Attorney Conrad Ost Seifert
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Old Lyme, CT Criminal Law Attorney
(860) 434-2097 Old Lyme Marketplace
Halls Road, P.O. Box 576
Old Lyme, CT 06371
Criminal, Appeals, Insurance Claims and Traffic Tickets
Steven Tomeo
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
(860) 447-3690 165 State Street
Suite 505
New London, CT 06320
New London, CT Criminal Law Lawyer with 41 years experience
Criminal and DUI
Ohio Northern University
Attorney Tomeo is truly passionate about fighting for the underdog. Whether you are facing DUI charges or assault charges, he has the skills and knowledge required to carefully handle your case.

He has extensive DUI training and has taken many classes on standardized field sobriety testing, including,

The LaPiere course
The C.E.S. consulting breath testing course
He has taken the Mastering Scientific Evidence for DUI Defense, the advanced trial strategy course, and is a Member of NCDD (National College for DUI Defense). In addition to the coursework, Attorney Tomeo along with his partner Jonathan R. Sills, Co-Author the Connecticut Practice Series Book, CONNECTICUT DUI...
Scott Carlson
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Middletown, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 10 years experience
(860) 819-1034 100 Riverview Center #130
Middletown, CT 06457
Free ConsultationCriminal, DUI, Personal Injury and White Collar Crime
Roger Williams University School of Law
If you are looking for an attorney in Hartford, you have come to the right place! Carlson & Dumeer law office has earned its highly-respected reputation and is just the law firm for you. Attorney Scott Carlson attended Roger Williams University, where he earned his undergraduate degree. He later obtained his Juris Doctorate from Roger Williams University School of Law. The team at this law office is equipped and qualified to stand beside you and support you at this time in your life. They are associated with the American Association for Justice, the Connecticut Trial Lawyers Association, and the Connecticut...
Michael Boardman
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Groton, CT Criminal Law Lawyer
(860) 326-5100 317 Long Hill Rd.
Groton, CT 06340
Free ConsultationCriminal, Family, Medical Malpractice and Personal Injury
Quinnipiac University School of Law
Attorney Boardman grew up in Upstate NY, where he lived until he enlisted in the US Navy as a Submarine Sonar Technician. Following 9 years of service, Attorney Boardman left the service to attend law school. He is a graduate of Quinnipiac University School of Law, and is admitted to practice law in the state of Connecticut. Attorney Boardman also holds an Associates Degree in Electronics from Thomas Edison State University, a Bachelor's Degree in Society and Justice from the University of Connecticut, a Master of Business Administration from the University of Phoenix, and a Masters Degree...
Brian Dumeer
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Middletown, CT Criminal Law Lawyer with 10 years experience
(860) 819-1034 100 Riverview Center
Middletown, CT 06457
Criminal, Estate Planning, Personal Injury and Real Estate
Roger Williams University School of Law
Tamar Rebecca Birckhead
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Guilford, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 26 years experience
(203) 453-1007 18 Church Street
Guilford, CT 06437
Criminal, DUI, Domestic Violence and Juvenile
Harvard Law School
EFFECTIVE, EXPERIENCED, EASY TO WORK WITH: For over twenty-five years, Tamar R. Birckhead has represented individuals charged with criminal offenses in the state and federal court systems at the trial and appellate levels.  While she currently practices in Connecticut, Tamar is also licensed in Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina. Tamar has defended clients in a wide variety of criminal cases—from felonies in state court to alleged acts of terrorism in federal court.  Among her clients was Richard Reid, the attempted “Shoe Bomber” prosecuted in the First Circuit under the U.S.A. Patriot Act. 

A cum laude graduate of Yale University...
Gregg Wagman
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New London, CT Criminal Law Attorney
(860) 444-0100 70 Howard St. Suite C
New London, CT 06320
Free ConsultationCriminal, Bankruptcy, DUI and Traffic Tickets
Quinnipiac School of Law
At the Law Offices of Gregg W. Wagman in New London, Connecticut, clients are guided through their challenges with a legal framework and options to make informed decisions. With an expansive knowledge of law including Bankruptcy, Criminal Defense, Personal Injury and Family Law, clients can expect to receive one-on-one attention from Attorney Wagman and his well-trained staff. Attorney Wagman's comprehensive knowledge of law allows clients to receive counsel in cases ranging from motor vehicle violations to homicide. Attorney Wagman and his staff are dedicated to helping people maneuver through their difficult situations with a high level of commitment and empathy...
Mark Otto Grater
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Groton, CT Criminal Law Lawyer with 43 years experience
(860) 449-8059 4 Fort Hill Rd.
Groton, CT 06340
Free ConsultationCriminal, Bankruptcy, DUI and Personal Injury
New England Law | Boston
The majority of my practice involves bankrutcy for individuals, with the goal of giving them a fresh start in life and/or saving their property. I have also in the past tried numerous Court cases involving personal injury and criminal defense. I try to be there for my clients whenever they call.
Michael A. Blanchard
Claimed Lawyer Profile
New London, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 36 years experience
(860) 442-4416 2 Union St
New London, CT 06320
Criminal and Family
Western New England University School of Law
Trial experience in all state courts in criminal matters, both in Part A (serious felonies) and Part B (felonies and misdemeanors). Trial experience in all state courts in family matters including custody, relocation and financial disputes.
Walter Charles Bansley IV
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Groton, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 15 years experience
(860) 326-5100 317 Long Hill Road
Groton, CT 06430
Criminal and Personal Injury
Walt IV is a former Marine Corps Captain having deployed around the world to many Middle Eastern countries, East Timor, Singapore, Thailand, Hong Kong, and Australia. Prior to his Marine Corps service, Walt earned his bachelor's degree, cum laude, from Boston University in 1997. Following his Marine Corps service, Walt attended Quinnipiac University's School of Law, graduating magna cum laude and in the top 15% of his class. Walt has tried numerous cases to verdict, from drugs and robbery to murder. Walt teaches at the university level the subjects of Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure, and Mock...
Robert M. Elliott
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Marlborough, CT Criminal Law Attorney
(860) 295-9521 7 S Main St Unit A
Marlborough, CT 06447
Criminal
Sebastian DeSantis
Claimed Lawyer Profile
New London, CT Criminal Law Lawyer
(860) 439-0407 345 State Street
New London, CT 06320
Criminal
Groton, CT Criminal Law Attorney
(860) 445-8521 100 Fort Hill Rd
Groton, CT 06340
Criminal, Business, Divorce and Estate Planning
New London, CT Criminal Law Lawyer
(860) 443-9662 16 Granite St
New London, CT 06320
Criminal
New London, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 46 years experience
(860) 442-0321 199 Broad St
New London, CT 06320
Criminal, DUI, Divorce and Family
Groton, CT Criminal Law Lawyer
(860) 445-8521 100 Fort Hill Road
Groton, CT 06340
Criminal
New London, CT Criminal Law Attorney
(860) 447-0447 103 Broad Street
New London, CT 06320
Criminal
Jonathan Sills
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ASocial Media
(860) 447-3690 165 State Street
Suite 505
New London, CT 06320
Free ConsultationNew London, CT Criminal Law Lawyer with 12 years experience
Criminal and DUI
University of Connecticut School of Law
Attorney Jonathan Sills manages Tomeo Sills, LLC's Criminal Defense Division and is also the firm’s lead trial attorney. Attorney Sills has an established record of obtaining Not Guilty verdicts in Felony and DUI Trials. He has been recognized by the National Trial Lawyers Top 100 as one of the top criminal defense trial attorneys in Connecticut. In addition he has been recognized by the National Advocacy for DUI Defense as one of the top DUI attorneys in Connecticut. Attorney Sills has been featured on NBC’s The Today Show as a Criminal Defense Analyst. He, along with Attorney Tomeo, co-author’s the...
Max Lavit Rosenberg
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ASocial MediaResponsive Law
Stratford, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 15 years experience
(203) 870-6700 2051 Main Street,
Stratford, CT 06615
Criminal, Bankruptcy, Personal Injury and Workers' Comp
Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law
Max L. Rosenberg works to assist clients in financial distress and those being harassed by collection agencies. He represents clients in all phases of Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 bankruptcy proceedings. Beyond his concentration on bankruptcy he also focuses his practice in assisting consumers with violations of the Federal Debt Collection Practices Act and has extensive experience with divorce mediation, criminal, corporate, and civil litigation, foreclosure defense, and workers compensation. While practicing in New York, Attorney Rosenberg mediated disputes at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and enjoyed arguing in every Borough in New York City as well as Long Island....
Tara Knight
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New Haven, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 28 years experience
(203) 624-6115 2 Lincoln Street
New Haven, CT 06510
Free ConsultationCriminal and Personal Injury
Suffolk University Law School
Tara Knight is the founding member and senior partner of the firm of Knight & Cerritelli L.L.C. located in New Haven, Connecticut. Attorney Knight specializes in criminal defense law and is board-certified in criminal trial advocacy by the National Board of Trial Advocacy. The Expanded Governing Board of Yale Law School has appointed her Clinical Tutor in Law at the Yale Law School yearly since 2013. She sat as one of the directors of the National Board of Legal Specialty Certification which is the governing board overseeing the certification of lawyers as Board Certified throughout the...
Ashling Soares
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ASocial Media
Fairfield, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 7 years experience
(203) 529-5115 P.O. Box 481
Fairfield, CT 06824
Free ConsultationCriminal, DUI, Traffic Tickets and White Collar Crime
University of Miami School of Law
Ashling Soares is a graduate of the University of Miami School of law, cum laude, and is admitted to practice in Connecticut, New York, and Florida state courts, as well as the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut. Ashling earned her B.A. in Sociology from Boston College, where she interned at a private criminal defense law firm. During law school, Ashling worked in the University of Miami’s Children and Youth Law
Clinic, where she represented current and former foster care youth in dependence, health care, mental health, disability, independent living, education, immigration and other general civil legal...
Patrick J. Cooney
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial MediaResponsive Law
Bristol, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 20 years experience
(860) 589-4343 43 Bellevue Ave
Bristol, CT 06011
Free ConsultationCriminal, DUI, Domestic Violence and Personal Injury
University of Connecticut School of Law
I represent people who have been injured by someone else's negligence or carelessness and I represent people who have been accused of having committed a crime. I have spent the majority of my career in Connecticut courts protecting my clients rights. I represent individuals not big insurance companies. I stand up to the State of Connecticut and insurance companies on behalf of my clients and I always fight to make sure my clients get the best out come possible.
James William Cummings
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Waterbury, CT Criminal Law Lawyer with 32 years experience
(203) 754-7779 21 Holmes Avenue
Waterbury, CT 06710
Free ConsultationCriminal, Divorce, Estate Planning and Family
University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law
At your side, on your side, every step of the way Respected personal, family, business and general practice lawyer James W. Cummings stands by his clients every step of the way. The Cummings Law Firm is the optimal choice for legal representation in the greater Waterbury, Connecticut area and in Litchfield, New Haven and Fairfield counties. Experience, integrity, and community service With over 25 years of legal experience, attorney Cummings listens to your special circumstances, ensures you understand all of your options, and works tirelessly to ensure you are treated fairly and justly. A rare combination of talents James Cummingsâs...
Emily Riordan Lucibello
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Milford, CT Criminal Law Lawyer with 9 years experience
(203) 298-4658 26 Broad Street
PO Box 5233
Milford, CT 06460
Free ConsultationCriminal, Business, Divorce and Family
Quinnipiac University School of Law
Emily S. Lucibello has owned and operated a law practice in Connecticut since 2009. Prior to that, she worked as an associate attorney at a general practice law firm with offices in New Haven and Hartford, CT. Attorney Lucibello focuses her practice on divorce and family law, business law, and criminal and civil defense. Her work has been recognized by the publication “Super Lawyers,” in which she was named to the New England and Connecticut Rising Stars lists in 2012 for criminal defense, and in 2013 - 2015 for family law. To learn more about the...
Daniel Harris Miller
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Waterbury, CT Criminal Law Lawyer with 11 years experience
(203) 753-1401 228 Meadow Street
Suite 103
Waterbury, CT 06702
Free ConsultationCriminal, Divorce, Family and Probate
Western New England University School of Law
Attorney Miller was admitted to practice law in the State of Connecticut in 2007. He has worked as a Special Deputy Assistant State's Attorney for the Judicial District of Waterbury. As a prosecutor, he had the opportunity to handle and try criminal cases of all types, ranging from infractions to serious felonies. Attorney Miller has experience representing a diverse range of clientele, from individuals to multinational corporations. He is certified through the state of Connecticut as a Guardian Ad Litem (GAL) for both children and adults and has been appointed on hundreds of cases.

Attorney Miller has...
Salvatore Bonanno
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ALII PlatinumSocial Media
Hartford, CT Criminal Law Lawyer with 31 years experience
(860) 527-6500 67 Russ Street, 1st Floor
Hartford, CT 06106
Free ConsultationCriminal, DUI, Domestic Violence and White Collar Crime
Quinnipiac University School of Law
Hartford Attorney Salvatore Bonanno has over 30 years experience as a litigation lawyer, focusing on the defense of clients facing criminal charges, DUI/DWI charges and domestic violence charges. Located directly in Hartford, Connecticut, we are conveniently located to meet with you and attend to any court matters that your case involves.
Peter Van Dyke
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
West Hartford, CT Criminal Law Lawyer with 16 years experience
(860) 232-7200 24 Arapahoe Road
West Hartford, CT 06107
Criminal, Business, Estate Planning and Personal Injury
University of Connecticut School of Law
Eagan, Donohue, Van Dyke & Falsey, LLP is a general practice law firm located in West Hartford, Connecticut. We have attorneys licensed to practice in Connecticut and Massachusetts, and we handle cases in both state and federal court. Our approach to the practice of law is simple. We are more than just lawyers, we are also counselors at law. We are conscious of the fact that clients come to us to solve problems, not to create them. The size of our firm is one of our biggest assets, allowing us to be highly responsive to our client's needs, while still...
Christopher DeMatteo
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ABlawgsearchSocial Media
West Haven, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 9 years experience
(203) 691-6594 203 Campbell Ave.
Suite C
West Haven, CT 06516
Free ConsultationCriminal, Appeals, DUI and Juvenile
Marquette University
Christopher DeMatteo was born and raised in New Haven. He went to Boston College and Marquette Law School. After serving as an associate for Bristol firm Jazlowiecki & Jazlowiecki, he set up his own practice in New Haven in December 2012.
Adrian Mark Baron
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New Britain, CT Criminal Law Lawyer
(860) 223-4000 202 Broad Street
New Britain, CT 06053
Criminal, DUI, Estate Planning and Family
Uniwersytet Jagellonski and Pace University
A native of Connecticut, Adrian Mark Baron is a partner in the law office of Podorowsky, Thompson & Baron. Attorney Baron has been profiled by various publications including the distinguished New York Law Journal, publications of the American Bar Association,the New Britain Herald, Boston's White Eagle News and the Pace Law School Alumni Magazine He is currently the co-author of a weekly legal issues column appearing throughout Connecticut and Massachusetts that reaches an estimated 25,000 readers. His views on Immigration reform, Polish-American relations, and other topical issues have been published in such wide forums as the New York Post, the...
Jerome N. Goldstein Esq.
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ASocial Media
Shelton, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 30 years experience
(203) 929-7773 4 Research Drive
Suite 402
Shelton, CT 06484-6242
Criminal, DUI, Divorce and Family
Quinnipiac University School of Law
Attorney Goldstein believes in building a personal relationship with the clients. This allows them to be sure that not only are the client’s present day needs taken care of, but that their future needs are looked after as well. Attorney Goldstein welcomes the opportunity to discuss your legal needs. He offers you affordable quality, and experienced legal representation.
Pamala Favreau
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Vernon, CT Criminal Law Lawyer with 29 years experience
(860) 875-3800 281 Hartford Turnpike
Suite 403
Vernon, CT 06066
Free ConsultationCriminal, DUI and Domestic Violence
Western New England University School of Law
I have aggressively and effectively represented persons accused of crimes throughout the State of Connecticut since 1989.

Formerly a Medical Technologist working in a hospital laboratory, I went on to obtain a Bachelor of Science Degree In Business Administration at Eastern Connecticut State University graduating magna cum laude in 1986. I earned my Juris Doctorate at Western New England College School of Law graduating cum laude in 1989. I was employed in the Public Sector as an Assistant Public Defender from 1989 to 1995 when I left State service and opened my own private practice.

A Member of the Connecticut...
Susan Dale Red
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New Haven, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 14 years experience
(203) 773-3500 7 Elm Street, Second Floor
New Haven, CT 06510
Free ConsultationCriminal and Personal Injury
Quinnipiac University School of Law
Practice Areas: Criminal Defense, Personal Injury and Pardons. 10 years trial experience. Get Red and Get Results.
Scott Allen Leventhal
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New Haven, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 18 years experience
(203) 865-3123 216 Crown St Ste 502
New Haven, CT 06510
Free ConsultationCriminal, DUI, Personal Injury and Traffic Tickets
Quinnipiac University School of Law
Advocating for the accused as well as victims of accidents who sustained personal injuries in Cheshire and all across New Haven County. Attorney Leventhal has successfully litigated over a thousand cases and has a proven trial record. Practicing at the LoRicco Law Firm in New Haven which has a 50+ year history of proudly serving our community.
Brian Woolf
Claimed Lawyer Profile
East Hartford, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 41 years experience
(800) 923-0557 50 Founders Plaza
2nd Floor
East Hartford, CT 06108
Free ConsultationCriminal, DUI, Personal Injury and White Collar Crime
University of Connecticut School of Law and University of Pennsylvania
Please click on our website link and go to "Attorney Profiles"
Todd A. Bussert
Claimed Lawyer ProfileBlawgsearchSocial Media
New Haven, CT Criminal Law Lawyer with 22 years experience
(203) 495-9790 129 Church St
#226
New Haven, CT 06510
Free ConsultationCriminal, Appeals and White Collar Crime
The George Washington University Law School
Kevin C. Ferry
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ASocial Media
New Britain, CT Criminal Law Attorney
(860) 827-0880 77 Lexington Street
New Britain, CT 06052
Free ConsultationCriminal, Construction, DUI and Medical Malpractice
Quinnipiac University
I am 43 years old and have lived in Avon, Connecticut my entire life. My practice is centered around personal injury and medical malpractice litigation. Competitive sports were the spring board for a career in litigation. I have been a competitive athlete as long as I remember and was the only athlete in the State to earn All State Honors in two sports in 1983: Track and Field and Soccer. I have coached girls soccer for six years, earned a "D" coaching license and earned three State Championships at the youth level, Currently I race for a NASTAR...
Mark Dumas
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Milford, CT Criminal Law Lawyer with 15 years experience
(203) 275-9010 167 Cherry Street #107
Milford, CT 06614
Criminal, Business, Construction and Estate Planning
Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law
Bryan McEntee
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial MediaResponsive Law
Waterbury, CT Criminal Law Lawyer with 10 years experience
(203) 982-8396 19 Mitchell Avenue, 2nd Floor
Waterbury, CT 06710
Criminal, Estate Planning, Landlord Tenant and Real Estate
Massachusetts School of Law
Most people come looking for an attorney when something unpleasant has happened in their lives. Attorney McEntee understands the stress that you are experiencing. If retained, Attorney McEntee will personally dedicate himself to your legal matter and work hard to obtain the most positive outcome possible so that you no longer need to worry. Hard work, dedication, results. Rest assured. If you hire Attorney McEntee, your case will be handled competently.
Ron Murphy
Claimed Lawyer ProfileLII GoldSocial Media
New Britain, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 36 years experience
(860) 348-1900 11 Franklin Square
New Britain, CT 06051
Free ConsultationCriminal, DUI, Legal Malpractice and Medical Malpractice
University of Connecticut School of Law
Attorney Ron Murphy is a 1983 graduate of the University of Connecticut School of Law and the owner and principal trial lawyer of Advocates Law Firm. His practice is devoted exclusively to helping people who have been injured to get justice and compensation; and to helping people who have been accused of misconduct to defend their reputations and liberty. Attorney Murphy represents people injured by Auto Accidents, Legal Malpractice, or Medical Malpractice; and he defends people accused in the areas of White Collar Criminal Defense, Federal Criminal Defense, State Criminal Defense, and Attorney Grievance Defense. Attorney Murphy also handles Commercial Litigation...
Peter G. Billings
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
New Haven, CT Criminal Law Attorney with 9 years experience
(203) 562-0900 7 Elm St #2r, New Haven
New Haven, CT 06510
Free ConsultationCriminal, DUI, Divorce and Domestic Violence
Quinnipiac University School of Law
Peter Billings is a founding partner of Billings, Barrett & Bowman, LLC. He focuses his practice primarily on criminal matters ranging from minor traffic infractions to the most serious cases of murder, as well as a wide range of family matters including divorce and custody cases.The common thread throughout Peter’s practice is his representation of individuals and fighting for those who need someone in their corner. Whether a high-stakes criminal case, highly contested divorce, or bitter custody battle, Peter will stand with you. Peter has been responsible for obtaining the highest quality results for his clients in criminal cases as...
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Criminal Lawyers in Nearby Cities

Criminal Lawyers in Nearby Counties

Essex Criminal Legal Aid & Pro Bono Services

Statewide Legal Services of Connecticut, Inc.
(860) 344-8096
Ext. 30
Middletown, CT

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Arrested or facing criminal charges?

Criminal law addresses the government's prosecution of individuals who have been accused of committing a crime. Such laws may be federal, state, or local. The prosecution represents the people of a particular jurisdiction, and acts on behalf of the government by bringing a case against an accused. Under the U.S. Constitution, a person accused of a crime may have the right to a criminal defense attorney during interrogations and certain other times before and during a trial.

Whether you are under police investigation, have been arrested, or are facing charges, having an advocate familiar with the criminal justice system.

Most jurisdictions classify crimes as felonies or misdemeanors, with felonies being the more serious offenses with the possibility of more severe sentences. Some criminal lawyers focus on a specific area of criminal defense law, such as white-collar crime, drug offenses, theft crimes, or violent crimes. You should consult with a criminal defense lawyer early on in the process to preserve options, such as diversion programs or plea bargains.

When hiring a criminal defense attorney, you should evaluate the experience and fee structure of the attorney. Some offer a free consultation to discuss your case.


Accomplice liability: If a person aids, assists, or encourages another in the commission of a crime, they are criminally liable as an accomplice to the crime.

Self-defense: The claim that an act otherwise criminal was legally justifiable because it was necessary to protect a person or property from the threat or action of another.