Tustin, Michigan Probate Lawyers

Patrick Allen Cherry
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Cadillac, MI Probate Attorney with 4 years experience
(231) 775-1391 120 W. Harris Street
Cadillac, MI 49601
Probate, Criminal, Juvenile and Real Estate
A native Michigander and veteran of the United States Air Force, Patrick Cherry received his B.A. degree with high honors from University of Michigan in 2012. He then worked as a judicial intern and law clerk while attending Wayne State University Law School, graduating in 2015. After graduation, Patrick moved with his family to Interlochen to enable his oldest son to attend the prestigious Interlochen Arts Academy. Patrick joined McCurdy, Wotila & Porteous in April 2016 as the newest Associate Attorney in the firm. As a trial lawyer, Patrick represents our clients in all types of litigation including...
Michael J. Swogger
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Traverse City, MI Probate Attorney with 30 years experience
(231) 947-6800 10691 East Carter Road, Suite 103
Traverse City, MI 49684
Probate, Estate Planning and Insurance Defense
Michigan State University
I am rated AV by Martindale Hubbell. I completed my Certificate of Completion for the Probate and Estate Planning Certificate Program in Michigan in 2010. I practiced in the area of insurance defense litigation from 1989 through 2012. I have tried over 60 civil jury cases. My practice now focuses on estate planning, probate, and trust administration.

I live in Northern Michigan, married with two adult children and a dog. I play guitar in 3 different rock n roll cover bands. I also attempt to sing...
Leslie Van Alstine
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Manistee, MI Probate Attorney with 25 years experience
(231) 723-3250 255 River St
Manistee, MI 49660
Probate, DUI, Estate Planning and Family
Thomas Cooley Law School
We opened our office in Manistee, Michigan in 1995 and have been providing excellent, affordable legal services ever since. We have experienced a variety of challenges that have assisted us in developing a law practice that is particularly suited for the needs and desires of Manistee residents and visitors. We offer free initial consultations for criminal matters and personal injury cases, we only charge $100 for initial consultations for all other matters. Admitted to Practice in the State of Michigan in 1995 and Little River Band of Ottawa Indians Tribal Court in 2004. If you...
Lea Ann Sterling
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Traverse City, MI Probate Attorney with 40 years experience
(877) 221-7628 13919 S. West Bay Shore Drive
Suite 209
Traverse City, MI 49684
Probate, Divorce, Estate Planning and Family
The Ohio State University Michael E. Moritz College of Law
Lea Ann Sterling has been a member of the Michigan Bar since 1998 and has practiced in Leelanau County since 2001. Admitted to the bar in Ohio in 1981, Mrs. Sterling practiced law in Columbus. In 1997, she took a sabbatical to write, travel, and relocate from Ohio to Michigan. Her first book, Historic Homes of Olde Towne, was released in 1999 and won the Ohio Historical Society’s 2000 Public Education and Awareness Award. Historic Cottages of Mackinac Island, released in 2001, was listed on the Michigan Governor’s List of Best Books of 2001. In March 1999, Mrs. Sterling was...
Agnes Jury
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Traverse City, MI Probate Attorney with 12 years experience
(877) 221-7628 13919 S. West Bay Shore Drive
Suite 209
Traverse City, MI 49684
Free ConsultationProbate, Divorce, Estate Planning and Family
The John Marshall Law School
September 2015-present - Attorney at Sterling Law Office and ADAM - The American Divorce Association for Men in Traverse City, Michigan, practicing in the areas of family law, immigration law, estate planning, civil litigation, Appeals, and business law.

April 2008-May 2015 - Attorney in Geneva, Illinois, practicing in the areas of administrative law, Appeals, business law, civil litigation, criminal law, employment law, estate planning, family law and immigration law.

I currently work in the areas of family law, immigration, and estate planning.
Free phone consult - 231-486-0559 / sterlinglawoffice.net
Lesley Hoenig
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Mount Pleasant, MI Probate Attorney with 17 years experience
(989) 773-0900 407 E Broadway
Mount Pleasant, MI 48858
Free ConsultationProbate, Bankruptcy, Estate Planning and Foreclosure Defense
Northern Illinois University College of Law
I am an attorney licensed to practice in Michigan, Illinois and Minnesota. I primarily practice in bankruptcy, foreclosure, real estate, estate planning and probate.
R. Todd Balkema
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Big Rapids, MI Probate Lawyer
(800) 395-4347 218 Maple St
Big Rapids, MI 49307
Probate, Elder and Estate Planning
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School
Brandon S. Dornbusch
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Traverse City, MI Probate Lawyer with 7 years experience
125 Park Street
Suite 350
Traverse City, MI 49684
Free ConsultationProbate, Elder, Estate Planning and Real Estate
Case Western Reserve University School of Law
Brandon received his undergraduate degree with honors from Michigan State University in History with a concentration in Mandarin Chinese, and his JD from Case Western Reserve University School of Law in 2011. While at Case, he focused his studies on Federal income, estate, gift, and generation skipping taxation. He discovered that the analytical nature of tax and estate planning suited his intellectual inclinations. In addition to creating estate plans, Brandon works in the probate arena and assists families in implementing plans when loved ones pass away, and in setting up guardianships for minors, individuals with special needs, and individuals...
Eric W. Phelps
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Traverse City, MI Probate Attorney with 21 years experience
(231) 421-6577 13919 SW Bayshore Dr.
Suite G02
Traverse City, MI 49684
Probate, Business, Divorce and Family
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School
Jaynie Smith Hoerauf
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Clare, MI Probate Attorney with 26 years experience
(989) 386-3434 601 Beech Street
PO Box 67
Clare, MI 48617
Probate, Business, Collections and Municipal
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School
About half of my practice consists of local government representation. The remainder is real estate, estate planning, probate, collections and general business matters. We strive to provide prompt and professional services with personal attention and care.
Linda E. Wasielewski
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Traverse City, MI Probate Attorney with 41 years experience
(231) 933-0829 934 South Garfield Avvenue
Suite A2
Traverse City, MI 49686
Free ConsultationProbate, Estate Planning and Real Estate
Wayne State University Law School
The law office of Linda E. Wasielewski, located in Traverse City, Michigan, serves the Northern Michigan area by delivering a highly specialized spectrum of legal services to its clients. Servicing the estate planning, probate, transactional and family law needs of my clients, I have highly specialized expertise and advanced training in these fields of law. I strive to individualize my attention in a personal manner to meet the unique needs of each client. I stress delivery of the highest quality of service at a modest rate to insure the establishment and maintenance of a trust relationship between...
Kent Rozycki
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Traverse City, MI Probate Lawyer with 37 years experience
(231) 932-2400 12935 S. West Bay Shore Drive
Ste. 370
Traverse City, MI 49684
Free ConsultationProbate, Business, Estate Planning and Tax
I am also a CPA and my practice is business oriented.
David T. McAndrew
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Harrison, MI Probate Lawyer with 22 years experience
(989) 539-2105 651 Richard Dr
Harrison, MI 48625
Probate, Bankruptcy, Divorce and Estate Planning
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School
David T. McAndrew, Attorney at Law, PLLC, was licensed in Michigan in 1998 and admitted to practice in Federal Courts. David McAndrew can assist you in stopping the harassment, the late night phone calls, wage garnishments, lawsuits, judgments, and the aggressive debt collection techniques used by many debt collectors. He will work directly with you to determine the best course of action for your individual situation.

David T. McAndrew is a member of the following:
Michigan Bar Association
Federal Bar Association, Eastern District of Michigan
Federal Bar Association, Western District of Michigan
National Association of...
Mr. Kevin J Kozma
Claimed Lawyer Profile
White Cloud, MI Probate Lawyer with 40 years experience
(231) 689-6636 200 S. Charles St. PO Box 130
White Cloud, MI 49349
Probate, Criminal, Family and Real Estate
Scot C. Putzig
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Saginaw, MI Probate Attorney with 6 years experience
(989) 799-5000 5195 Hampton Pl
Saginaw, MI 48604
Probate, Business, Estate Planning and Real Estate
University of Notre Dame
Scot focuses on business law, real estate development, employment law, estate planning, probate, and commercial litigation. He received his Bachelor of Arts from the University of Michigan and his J.D., with cum laude honors, from the Notre Dame Law School. While at Notre Dame, Scot was an editor with the Journal of Legislation and clerked for the Federal District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan in Flint, MI, and the Michigan Supreme Court in Lansing, MI. After graduating from Notre Dame Law School, Scot clerked with the Michigan Court of Appeals in Grand Rapids, MI. In January of...
Brent T. Geers
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ASocial Media
Grand Rapids, MI Probate Attorney with 7 years experience
(616) 965-6864 15 Ionia Ave SW STE 530
Grand Rapids, MI 49503
Free ConsultationProbate, Appeals, Estate Planning and Family
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School
Brent Geers specializes in helping people empower those they trust and provide for those they love. Brent has been an attorney since 2012, working with individuals and families to marshal their time, talent, and treasurer for the benefit of their children, family, and community. He is a Grand Rapids Business Journal’s “40 Under 40” honoree, and currently operates his own practice, Geers Law. Brent is married to an educator, who employs his services as a chaperon for various school functions. He is also his daughter’s father – a girl who will become a president, not a princess.
Matthew Piwowar
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Grandville, MI Probate Attorney with 29 years experience
(855) 750-8787 2939 Wilson Ave SW, No. 126
Grandville, MI 49468
Free ConsultationProbate, Business and Estate Planning
University of Michigan Law School
Estate Planning Attorney – Biography

Matthew V. Piwowar is the founder of Legacy Architects PLLC. His practice focuses on Estate Planning, Trusts and Wills, Special Needs Children, Business Succession, Long-Term Care, and Probate. He has over 27 years of experience advising on estate planning, business law, mergers & acquisitions, finance, and international law. Mr. Piwowar was born in Marquette, MI and grew up in West Michigan. He provides services to his clients statewide, from Grandville and Grand Rapids, south to Three Rivers and Kalamazoo, north to Boyne City and St. Ignace.

Experience

Piwowar’s background includes such transactions as: the sale of a...
L. Allen Heneveld
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Grand Rapids, MI Probate Lawyer with 34 years experience
(616) 498-5112 2828 Kraft Ave SE
Ste. 256
Grand Rapids, MI 49512
Free ConsultationProbate, Business, Estate Planning and Trademarks
The George Washington University Law School
BUSINESS LAW. With my education (JD, MBA, CPA) and experience (Attorney and Business Executive) I bring an unusual extensive knowledge and experience in both the business legal world and the business operations world. As a result, I understand both the business and legal aspects of most situations.

ESTATE PLANNING. I have developed an unique process to help clients understand how an estate plan works in order to help them make informed decisions so they have a peace of mind knowing what how their estate plan will unfold as life progresses.

PROBATE. For those looking to keep...
S. Christopher Hunter
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Grand Rapids, MI Probate Attorney with 13 years experience
(616) 719-2467 125 Ottawa Avenue, NW, Suite 245
Grand Rapids, MI 49503
Probate, Elder, Estate Planning and Family
University of Maine - School of Law
S. Christopher Hunter is the founding member of Hunter Law Offices, PLLC. Prior to opening his own practice, Mr. Hunter was an associate attorney with Garrison Lawhouse, PC in Dearborn, Michigan, served as a staff attorney at the Elder Law and Advocacy Center, and most recently managed and supervised the Great Lakes Legal – Elder Law Division’s reduced-fee program. Mr. Hunter focuses his practice in the areas of Elder Law, Long Term Care Planning, Estate Planning, Probate, Trusts, Guardianship/Conservatorships, and Social Security Disability. Mr. Hunter graduated from the University of Maine School of Law with a...
Robert Banner
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Boyne City, MI Probate Lawyer with 28 years experience
(231) 582-1710 213 S. Lake Street
Boyne City, MI 49712
Free ConsultationProbate, DUI, Divorce and Estate Planning
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School and Michigan State University
Robert Banner has 28 years experience serving clients in Northern Michigan. Areas of expertise include, but are not limited to, Divorce, Child Custody, Parenting Time, Drunk Driving, Estate Planning including drafting Wills and Trusts. We serve clients in Boyne City, Charlevoix, Petoskey, Boyne Falls, Bellaire, Central Lake and Gaylord. Mr. Banner was appointed by the Attorney General's Office in April 2018, as Public Administrator for Charlevoix County, Michigan.
Robert James Engel
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Petoskey, MI Probate Attorney with 40 years experience
(231) 347-6614 523 E. Mitchell Street, Suite 5
Petoskey, MI 49770
Free ConsultationProbate, Criminal, Estate Planning and Family
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School
Over 35 years of trial experience. Former prosecutor and public defender of criminal cases. Handle divorce, custody, child support, and paternity cases in the area of family law. Also, adoption, guardianship and conservatorship cases. Represent parents and/or children in juvenile court cases. Estates and estate planning.
Darrell Zolton
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Saginaw, MI Probate Lawyer with 28 years experience
(989) 792-1111 6420 Normandy Dr
Saginaw, MI 48638
Probate, Elder, Estate Planning and Real Estate
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School
Kelly Lambert
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&ASocial Media
GRAND RAPIDS, MI Probate Attorney with 31 years experience
(616) 732-8888 1444 MICHIGAN ST NE Suite 9
GRAND RAPIDS, MI 49503
Free ConsultationProbate, Criminal, DUI and Estate Planning
University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
KELLY G. LAMBERT was born in Omaha, Nebraska and graduated from Ottawa Hills High School in Grand Rapids, Michigan in 1981. In 1985, he received his Bachelor of Arts in international relations from Michigan State University where he was a National Merit Scholar. In December 1988, he received his law degree from University of Michigan Law School, where he was the recipient of the Wolverine State Bar Association Scholarship. In 1989 he was licensed to practice law in New York. In 1990 he was admitted to practice law in Michigan. He was admitted to practice...
Anne M VanderBroek
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial MediaResponsive Law
Spring Lake, MI Probate Attorney with 2 years experience
(616) 607-7522 17190 Van Wagoner Rd.
Spring Lake, MI 49456
Free ConsultationProbate, Bankruptcy, Elder and Estate Planning
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School and Lake Michigan College
At VanderBroek Law PLLC in Spring Lake, Michigan, we are fully prepared to help you with myriad serious legal issues affecting nearly every aspect of your life, including your family, your business, your finances and your future.

To that end, our law firm offers exceptional representation and support to a diverse range of clients throughout Ottawa, Kent and Muskegon counties who have legal needs involving any of the following practice areas:

Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 bankruptcy
Commercial collections and Debt Relief
Criminal Defense - including Felony, Misdemeanor, and OWI/DWI representation
Estate planning, wills, trusts, and elder law and probate administration

Our law firm's founder, attorney...
Douglas McPhail
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Muskegon, MI Probate Attorney with 30 years experience
(800) 968-1448 800 E. Ellis Road
Muskegon, MI 49441
Probate, Elder and Estate Planning
University of Detroit Mercy School of Law
Doug McPhail has more than 28 years experience helping families, like yours, protect their estates from nursing home poverty, taxes and unnecessary probate expenses. Doug earned his Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science and Mass Communications from Taylor University where he was active in student government leadership roles. After college, Doug enrolled at the University of Detroit Mercy School of Law where he graduated with honors in 1988. Doug earned the American Jurisprudence Award for Academic Excellence in the area of professional responsibility and was published member of the University of Detroit Law Review. While in...
Lawrence Wilson
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Ada, MI Probate Lawyer with 37 years experience
(616) 676-3852 6440 Fulton E
Ste 202
Ada, MI 49301
Probate, Estate Planning, Family and Tax
The University of Toledo College of Law
Born and raised in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Beth A. Striegle
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Grand Rapids, MI Probate Attorney with 17 years experience
(616) 242-9192 400 Ann St. NW, Ste. 207
Grand Rapids, MI 49504
Free ConsultationProbate, Estate Planning, Family and Real Estate
Western Michigan University Cooley Law School
Beth A. Striegle grew up in Grand Rapids, Michigan. After graduating from West Catholic High School, she attended Ferris State University where she obtained an Associate’s Degree in Commercial Art. Prior to attending law school, she obtained her Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration from Calvin College where she graduated with honors. While attending Thomas Cooley Law School she raised two young boys. Beth completed her law school internship at the Sixty-Plus Elder Law Clinic. She considers the experience she gained while working for the clinic to be very valuable because it gave her a better understanding of the various issues...
Daniel J Goeman
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Zeeland, MI Probate Lawyer with 23 years experience
(616) 796-9400 10500 Chicago Drive, Suite 75
Zeeland, MI 49464
Probate, Elder, Estate Planning and Family
Valparaiso University School of Law
Andrew D. Richards
Claimed Lawyer ProfileBlawgsearch
Saginaw, MI Probate Lawyer with 35 years experience
(989) 792-9641 200 St. Andrews Road
Saginaw, MI 48638
Probate, Business, Elder and Estate Planning
The Catholic University of America
I am an Estate Planning and Business Succession Planning Attorney, with the Saginaw - based law firm of Smith Bovill, P.C. I have been a Partner in the firm since 1991. I enjoy working with families and their estate planning and family businesses to help them with succession planning. We work with clients, most often on a flat fee basis, with a no-fee, no-obligation initial consultation. Clients meet with me personally on a one-to-one basis in all cases. Our staff is courteous, professional, knowledgeable and friendly. My philosophy is to build long-term relationships with clients.
Donald Messinger
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Spring Lake, MI Probate Lawyer with 47 years experience
(616) 846-7600 17190 Van Wagoner Road
Spring Lake, MI 49456
Free ConsultationProbate, Business, Estate Planning and Real Estate
DePaul College of Law
I have a broad range of legal service experience including; estate planning with wills, trusts and business plan documents; business transactions and contracts; civil litigation; and a variety of commercial and residential real estate matters.
Adam J. Sheridan
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Conklin, MI Probate Lawyer with 15 years experience
(616) 304-0987 1706 Coolidge Street
Conklin, MI 49403
Free ConsultationProbate, Business, Estate Planning and Tax
Marquette University Law School
With over fourteen years' experience in both law firm and large corporate environments, handling local, national, and international transactions of various types, I am able to assist clients in structuring and completing complex transactions while maintaining a personalized focus. Our firm appreciates each opportunity we have to learn a client's needs and provide customized solutions to the client's legal issues. I have substantial experience in real estate, corporate structure and governance, commercial contracts and procurement, mergers and acquisitions, estate and succession planning, taxation planning, and construction.
Jay E. Burrows
Claimed Lawyer ProfileQ&A
Shelby, MI Probate Attorney with 43 years experience
(231) 861-2183 191 N. Michigan Ave.
Shelby, MI 49455
Probate, Estate Planning, Real Estate and Tax
University of Michigan - Ann Arbor
Mr. Burrows has probated more estates than any other attorney now practicing in Oceana County. He has also save his client hundreds of thousands of dollars in qualifying clients for Medicaid when faced with nursing home bills. Mr. Burrows is a graduate of Michigan State and Michigans's most prestigious law school, the University of Michigan. He has practiced for over 39 years and he still loves his work. He can also help your with estate planning, tax planning, income tax preparation and appeals of property tax assessments. Mr. Burrows cares deeply about his clients and their problems.
Martin Holmes
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Muskegon, MI Probate Lawyer
(231) 744-9439 318 Center St
Muskegon, MI 49445
Probate, Bankruptcy, Estate Planning and Social Security Disability
University of Detroit
Jenny L. DeGraves
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Holland, MI Probate Attorney with 11 years experience
(616) 394-4276 217 East 24th Street, Ste. 201
Holland, MI 49423
Probate, Estate Planning, Landlord Tenant and Real Estate
Michigan State University
Fredric Balgooyen
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Muskegon, MI Probate Lawyer with 53 years experience
(231) 733-2566 McCroskey Law Building
1440 Peck Street
Muskegon, MI 49441
Probate, Criminal, Estate Planning and Family
Balgooyen Law Offices has been a general practice firm in Muskegon County for over 40 years, having represented three municipal governments, several area businesses, and multiple generations of Muskegon families. Fredric F. Balgooyen, sole practitioner, has experience as both a prosecuting and public defense attorney, is a member of the State Bar of Michigan's Criminal Law Section, Probate and Estate Planning Section and Master Lawyer Section. Practice areas include estate planning, Wills & Trusts, Probate and decedent estates, real estate, business law, business planning, commercial and civil litigation, Landlord-Tenant, family law, domestic issues, divorce, child support...
Marc Woolery
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Grand Rapids, MI Probate Attorney with 7 years experience
(616) 581-2795 PO Box 150257
Grand Rapids, MI 49515
Probate, Business and Estate Planning
Holly F. Verde
Claimed Lawyer ProfileSocial Media
Holland, MI Probate Lawyer with 31 years experience
(616) 399-3838 281 N. 120th Ave.
Holland, MI 49424
Probate, Divorce, Family and Personal Injury
Wake Forest University School of Law
John Michael Guinan
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Grand Haven, MI Probate Attorney with 17 years experience
(616) 847-1234 41 Washington Ave.
Suite 250
Grand Haven, MI 49417
Probate, Elder, Estate Planning and Personal Injury
Western New England University School of Law
Trent C. Hilding
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Vestaburg, MI Probate Attorney
(989) 427-3436 4070 N. Crystal Road
Vestaburg, MI 48891
Probate, Agricultural, Estate Planning and Tax
Jennifer Duitsman Coy
Claimed Lawyer Profile
Gaylord, MI Probate Attorney with 9 years experience
(989) 732-2912 145 N. Otsego Ave.
Gaylord, MI 49735
Probate, Estate Planning, Family and Real Estate
Jennifer Duitsman Coy graduated from Iowa State University with a bachelor’s degree in political science, and received her law degree from Thomas M. Cooley Law School. She has been practicing law since early 2011. Her practice areas include estate planning, probate, real estate, and family law. Jennifer is also a trained mediator and volunteers with the 46th Circuit’s Legal Aid Divorce Clinic.
Lawyer Rating
Years of Experience
Language
Fees
Profile Strength
Probate Lawyers in Nearby CitiesProbate Lawyers in Nearby Counties

Related Practice Areas

Estate Planning
Family Law
Tax Law

Need a lawyer?

The Justia Lawyer Directory is a listing of lawyers, legal aid organizations, and pro bono legal service organizations. Whether you were injured, are accused of a crime, or are merely engaging in everyday affairs that affect your legal rights or property, an attorney can help you resolve problems or prevent new ones from arising.

Here are just a few situations where you might want to seek the advice of an attorney:

  • You were injured in a car or truck accident
  • You have been arrested and charged with a crime, such as DUI or shoplifting
  • You are considering separating from your spouse
  • You have been subjected to harassment or other discrimination at work

Use Justia to research and compare Tustin attorneys so that you can make an informed decision when you hire your counsel.

It is important to research an attorney before hiring him or her. Be sure to evaluate an attorney's experience (types of cases handled, prior results obtained, etc.). Although prior results are not indicative of the likelihood of success in your case, they can help you make an informed decision.

Also worth serious consideration is the attorney's location, particularly if you will be traveling to visit him or her for consultations.

Finally, research an attorney to see whether he or she has ever been subject to discipline. Although disciplinary actions do not necessarily impact the attorney's competence to handle your case, they may affect your decision whether to hire.