California Civil Jury Instructions (CACI) (2017)
106. EvidenceDownload PDF
You must decide what the facts are in this case only from the evidence
you see or hear during the trial. Sworn testimony, documents, or
anything else may be admitted into evidence. You may not consider as
evidence anything that you see or hear when court is not in session,
even something done or said by one of the parties, attorneys, or
What the attorneys say during the trial is not evidence. In their opening
statements and closing arguments, the attorneys will talk to you about
the law and the evidence. What the lawyers say may help you
understand the law and the evidence, but their statements and
arguments are not evidence.
The attorneys’ questions are not evidence. Only the witnesses’ answers
are evidence. You should not think that something is true just because
an attorney’s question suggests that it is true. However, the attorneys
for both sides can agree that certain facts are true. This agreement is
called a “stipulation.” No other proof is needed and you must accept
those facts as true in this trial.
Each side has the right to object to evidence offered by the other side. If
I do not agree with the objection, I will say it is overruled. If I overrule
an objection, the witness will answer and you may consider the
evidence. If I agree with the objection, I will say it is sustained. If I
sustain an objection, you must ignore the question. If the witness did
not answer, you must not guess what he or she might have said or why I
sustained the objection. If the witness has already answered, you must
ignore the answer.
An attorney may make a motion to strike testimony that you have
heard. If I grant the motion, you must totally disregard that testimony.
You must treat it as though it did not exist.
New September 2003; Revised February 2005, December 2010, December 2012
Directions for Use
This instruction should be given as an introductory instruction.
Sources and Authority
• “Evidence” Deﬁned. Evidence Code section 140.
• Jury to Decide Questions of Fact. Evidence Code section 312.
• Miscarriage of Justice. Evidence Code section 353.
• A stipulation in proper form is binding on the parties if it is within the authority
of the attorney. Properly stipulated facts may not be contradicted. (Palmer v.
City of Long Beach (1948) 33 Cal.2d 134, 141–142 [199 P.2d 952].)
• Courts have held that “attempts to suggest matters of an evidentiary nature to a
jury other than by the legitimate introduction into evidence is misconduct
whether by questions on cross-examination, argument or other means.” (Smith v.
Covell (1980) 100 Cal.App.3d 947, 960 [161 Cal.Rptr. 377].)
• Courts have stated that “[t]he right to object on appeal to misconduct or
improper argument, even when prejudicial, is generally waived in the absence
of a proper objection and request the jury be admonished.” (Atkins v. Bisigier
(1971) 16 Cal.App.3d 414, 427 [94 Cal.Rptr. 49]; Horn v. Atchison, Topeka &
Santa Fe Ry. Co. (1964) 61 Cal.2d 602, 610 [39 Cal.Rptr. 721, 394 P.2d 561].)
3 Witkin, California Evidence (4th ed. 2000) Presentation at Trial
7Witkin, California Procedure (5th ed. 2008) Trial, §§ 281, 282
1A California Trial Guide, Unit 21, Procedures for Determining Admissibility of
Evidence, §§ 21.01, 21.03 (Matthew Bender)
27 California Forms of Pleading and Practice, Ch. 322, Juries and Jury Selection,
§§ 322.56–322.57 (Matthew Bender)
48 California Forms of Pleading and Practice, Ch. 551, Trial, §§ 551.61, 551.77
California Judges Benchbook: Civil Proceedings—Trial (2d ed.) §§ 3.52, 4.99, 5.40,
5.49, 5.69, 12.9, 12.35 (Cal CJER 2010)
PRETRIAL INSTRUCTIONS CACI No. 106