CACI No. 1249. Affirmative Defense - Reliance on Knowledgeable Intermediary

Judicial Council of California Civil Jury Instructions (2023 edition)

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1249.Affirmative Defense - Reliance on Knowledgeable
[Name of defendant] claims that [he/she/nonbinary pronoun/it] is not
responsible for any harm to [name of plaintiff] based on a failure to warn
because [name of defendant] sold [specify product, e.g., asbestos] to an
intermediary purchaser [name of intermediary]; and [name of defendant]
relied on [name of intermediary] to provide adequate warnings to end
users of [e.g., asbestos]. To succeed on this defense, [name of defendant]
must prove:
1. That [name of defendant] sold [specify product, e.g., asbestos] to
[name of intermediary];
[2. That [name of defendant] conveyed adequate warnings of the
particular risks in the use of [e.g., asbestos] to [name of
[2. [or]
[2. That [name of defendant] knew that [name of intermediary] was
aware of, or should have been aware of, the particular risks of
[e.g., asbestos];]
[2. and
3. That [name of defendant] actually and reasonably relied on [name
of intermediary] to convey adequate warnings of the particular
risks in the use of [e.g., asbestos]to those who, like [name of
plaintiff], might encounter the risk of [e.g., asbestos].
3. Reasonable reliance depends on many factors, including, but not
limited to:
a. The degree of risk posed by [e.g., asbestos];
b. The feasibility of [name of defendant]’s directly warning those
who might encounter [e.g., asbestos] in a finished product; and
c. The likelihood that the intermediary purchaser will convey
c. In determining the likelihood that [name of intermediary] would
convey adequate warnings, consider what a supplier of [e.g.,
asbestos] should know about [name of intermediary]. Factors to
consider include, but are not limited to:
(1) Whether [name of intermediary] knew or should have been
aware of the specific risks posed by [e.g., asbestos];
(2) Whether [name of intermediary] had a reputation for
carefulness; and
(3) Whether [name of intermediary] was willing to, and had the
ability to, communicate adequate warnings to end users.
New May 2017
Directions for Use
Give this instruction if the defendant supplier of materials claims that it gave
warnings to an intermediary purchaser or relied on an intermediary purchaser to
provide warnings to end users of the product. Reasonable reliance on an
intermediary is an affirmative defense to a claim of failure to warn under both strict
liability and negligence theories. (See Webb v. Special Electric Co., Inc. (2016) 63
Cal.4th 167, 187 [202 Cal.Rptr.3d 460, 370 P.3d 1022].)
This instruction sets forth all of the elements of the defense. The reasonableness of
the defendant’s reliance under factors a-c on the intermediary to warn end users is a
question of fact. (Webb, supra, 63 Cal.4th at p. 180.)
Sources and Authority
“When a hazardous raw material is supplied for any purpose, including the
manufacture of a finished product, the supplier has a duty to warn about the
material’s dangers. Under the sophisticated intermediary doctrine, the supplier
can discharge this duty if it conveys adequate warnings to the material’s
purchaser, or sells to a sufficiently sophisticated purchaser, and reasonably relies
on the purchaser to convey adequate warnings to others, including those who
encounter the material in a finished product. Reasonable reliance depends on
many circumstances, including the degree of risk posed by the material, the
likelihood the purchaser will convey warnings, and the feasibility of directly
warning end users. The doctrine balances the competing policies of
compensating those injured by dangerous products and encouraging conduct that
can feasibly be performed.” (Webb, supra, 63 Cal.4th at p. 177.)
“To establish a defense under the sophisticated intermediary doctrine, a product
supplier must show not only that it warned or sold to a knowledgeable
intermediary, but also that it actually and reasonably relied on the intermediary
to convey warnings to end users. This inquiry will typically raise questions of
fact for the jury to resolve unless critical facts establishing reasonableness are
undisputed.” (Webb, supra, 63 Cal.4th at pp. 189-190.)
“Because the sophisticated intermediary doctrine is an affirmative defense, the
supplier bears the burden of proving that it adequately warned the intermediary,
or knew the intermediary was aware or should have been aware of the specific
hazard, and reasonably relied on the intermediary to transmit warnings.” (Webb,
supra, 63 Cal.4th at p. 187.)
“Like the sophisticated user defense, the sophisticated intermediary defense
applies to failure to warn claims sounding in either strict liability or negligence.
As we have previously observed, ‘there is little functional difference between the
two theories in the failure to warn context.’ ‘[I]n failure to warn cases, whether
asserted on negligence or strict liability grounds, there is but one unitary theory
of liability which is negligence based - the duty to use reasonable care in
promulgating a warning.’ (Webb, supra, 63 Cal.4th at p. 187, internal citations
“The goal of products liability law is not merely to spread risk but also ‘to
“induce conduct that is capable of being performed.” The sophisticated
intermediary doctrine serves this goal by recognizing a product suppliers duty to
warn but permitting the supplier to discharge this duty in a responsible and
practical way. It appropriately and equitably balances the practical realities of
supplying products with the need for consumer safety.” (Webb, supra, 63 Cal.4th
at p. 187, internal citation omitted.)
“The ‘gravity’ of risk factor encompasses both the ‘serious or trivial character of
the harm’ that is possible and the likelihood that this harm will result. This
factor focuses on the nature of the material supplied. If the substance is
extremely dangerous, the supplier may need to take additional steps, such as
inquiring about the intermediary’s warning practices, to ensure that warnings are
communicated. The overarching question is the reasonableness of the supplier’s
conduct given the potential severity of the harm.” (Webb, supra, 63 Cal.4th at p.
190, internal citation omitted.)
“The second Restatement factor, measuring the likelihood that the intermediary
will warn, focuses on the reliability of the intermediary. The suppliers
knowledge about the intermediary’s reliability is judged by an objective standard,
based on what a reasonable supplier would have known under the circumstances.
Relevant concerns for this factor include, for example, the intermediary’s level
of knowledge about the hazard, its reputation for carefulness or consideration,
and its willingness, and ability, to communicate adequate warnings to end users.
Of course, a supplier is always free to inquire about the intermediary’s warning
policies and practices as a means of assessing the intermediary’s reliability. The
Second Restatement suggests economic motivations may also be important. For
example, an intermediary manufacturer may have an incentive to withhold
necessary information about a component material if warnings would make its
product less attractive.” (Webb, supra, 63 Cal.4th at p. 190, internal citations
“It is also significant if, under the circumstances giving rise to the plaintiff’s
claim, the intermediary itself had a legal duty to warn end users about the
particular hazard in question. In general, “every person has a right to presume
that every other person will perform his duty and obey the law.” As the
Restatement notes, ‘[m]odern life would be intolerable unless one were permitted
to rely to a certain extent on others’ doing what they normally do, particularly if
it is their duty to do so.’ This consideration may be especially relevant in the
context of a raw material or other component supplied for use in making a
finished product. Under California law, a product manufacturer has a legal duty
to warn its customers of all known or knowable dangers arising from use of the
product. However, regardless of the purchasers independent duty, the supplier
cannot reasonably ignore known facts that would provide notice of a substantial
risk that the intermediary might fail to warn or that warnings might fail to reach
the consumer.” (Webb, supra, 63 Cal.4th at p. 191, internal citations omitted.)
“When raw materials are supplied in bulk for the manufacture of a finished
product, it may be difficult for the supplier to convey warnings to the product’s
ultimate consumers. These suppliers likely have no way to identify ultimate
product users and no ready means to communicate with them.” (Webb, supra, 63
Cal.4th at p. 191.)
“We recognize that direct proof of actual reliance may be difficult to obtain
when, as in the case of latent disease, the material was supplied to an
intermediary long ago. However, actual reliance is an inference the factfinder
should be able to draw from circumstantial evidence about the parties’ dealings.”
(Webb, supra, 63 Cal.4th at p. 193.)
Secondary Sources
6 Witkin, Summary of California Law (11th ed. 2017) Torts, § 1321
1 California Products Liability Actions, Ch. 2, Liability for Defective Products,
§ 2.21[3][c] (Matthew Bender)
40 California Forms of Pleading and Practice, Ch. 460, Products Liability,
§ 460.11[10][b] (Matthew Bender)
19 California Points and Authorities, Ch. 190, Products Liability, § 190.263 et seq.
(Matthew Bender)
1250-1299. Reserved for Future Use

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