1706.Deﬁnition of Statement
The word “statement” in these instructions refers to any form of
communication or representation, including spoken or written words
[or] pictures [or] [insert audible or visual representations].
New September 2003
Directions for Use
This instruction may be necessary in every case, but could be useful in cases where
defamatory material is not written or verbal.
Sources and Authority
• Libel. Civil Code section 45.
• Slander. Civil Code section 46.
5 Witkin, Summary of California Law (10th ed. 2005) Torts, §§ 529–555
4 Levy et al., California Torts, Ch. 45, Defamation, § 45.02 (Matthew Bender)
30 California Forms of Pleading and Practice, Ch. 340, Libel and Slander, § 340.18
14 California Points and Authorities, Ch. 142, Libel and Slander (Defamation),
§ 142.21 (Matthew Bender)
1 California Civil Practice: Torts § 21:2 (Thomson Reuters)