California Civil Jury Instructions (CACI) (2017)

VF-1700. Defamation per se (Public Officer/Figure and Limited Public Figure)

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VF-1700.Defamation per se (Public Officer/Figure and Limited
Public Figure)
We answer the questions submitted to us as follows:
1. Did [name of defendant] make the following statement to [a
person/persons] other than [name of plaintiff]? [Insert claimed per
se defamatory statement.]
1. Yes No
1. If your answer to question 1 is yes, then answer question 2. If
you answered no, stop here, answer no further questions, and
have the presiding juror sign and date this form.
2. Did the [person/people] to whom the statement was made
reasonably understand that the statement was about [name of
plaintiff]?
2. Yes No
2. If your answer to question 2 is yes, then answer question 3. If
you answered no, stop here, answer no further questions, and
have the presiding juror sign and date this form.
3. Did [this person/these people] reasonably understand the
statement to mean that [insert ground(s) for defamation per se,
e.g., “[name of plaintiff] had committed a crime”]?
3. Yes No
3. If your answer to question 3 is yes, then answer question 4. If
you answered no, stop here, answer no further questions, and
have the presiding juror sign and date this form.
4. Was the statement false?
4. Yes No
4. If your answer to question 4 is yes, then answer question 5. If
you answered no, stop here, answer no further questions, and
have the presiding juror sign and date this form.
5. Did [name of plaintiff] prove by clear and convincing evidence
that [name of defendant] knew the statement was false or had
serious doubts about the truth of the statement?
5. Yes No
5. If your answer to question 5 is yes, then answer questions 6, 7,
and 8. If you answered no, stop here, answer no further
questions, and have the presiding juror sign and date this form.
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ACTUAL DAMAGES
6. Was [name of defendant]’s conduct a substantial factor in causing
[name of plaintiff] actual harm?
6. Yes No
6. If your answer to question 6 is yes, then answer question 7. If
you answered no, skip question 7 and answer question 8.
7. What are [name of plaintiff]’s actual damages for:
[a. Harm to [name of plaintiff]’s property,
business, trade, profession, or occupation? $ ]
[b. Expenses [name of plaintiff] had to pay
as a result of the defamatory statements? $ ]
[c. Harm to [name of plaintiff]’s reputation? $ ]
[d. Shame, mortification, or hurt feelings? $ ]
7. [If [name of plaintiff] has not proved any actual damages for
either c or d, then answer question 8. If [name of plaintiff] has
proved actual damages for both c and d, skip question 8 and
answer question 9.]
ASSUMED DAMAGES
8. What are the damages you award [name of plaintiff] for the
assumed harm to [his/her] reputation, and for shame,
mortification, or hurt feelings? You must award at least a
nominal sum. $
PUNITIVE DAMAGES
9. Did [name of plaintiff] prove by clear and convincing evidence
that [name of defendant] acted with malice, oppression, or fraud?
9. Yes No
9. If your answer to question 9 is yes, then answer question 10. If
you answered no, stop here, answer no further questions, and
have the presiding juror sign and date this form.
10. What is your award of punitive damages, if any, against [name of
defendant]? $
Signed: Presiding Juror
Dated:
After [this verdict form has/all verdict forms have] been signed, notify
DEFAMATION VF-1700
995
0057
the [clerk/bailiff/court attendant] that you are ready to present your
verdict in the courtroom.
New September 2003; Revised December 2005, April 2008, October 2008,
December 2010, December 2016
Directions for Use
This verdict form is based on CACI No. 1700, Defamation per se—Essential
Factual Elements (Public Offıcer/Figure and Limited Public Figure).
The special verdict forms in this section are intended only as models. They may
need to be modified depending on the facts of the case.
Multiple statements may need to be set out separately, and if separate damages are
claimed as to each statement, separate verdict forms may be needed for each
statement because all the elements may need to be found as to each statement.
Give the jury question 3 only if the statement is not defamatory on its face.
In question 7, omit damage items c and d if the plaintiff elects not to present proof
of actual damages for harm to reputation and for shame mortification, or hurt
feelings. Whether or not proof for both categories is offered, include question 8.
For these categories, the jury may find that no actual damages have been proven
but must still make an award of assumed damages.
Omit question 10 if the issue of punitive damages has been bifurcated.
If there are multiple causes of action, users may wish to combine the individual
forms into one form. If different damages are recoverable on different causes of
action, replace the damages tables in all of the verdict forms with CACI No. VF-
3920, Damages on Multiple Legal Theories.
If the jury is being given the discretion under Civil Code section 3288 to award
prejudgment interest (see Bullis v. Security Pac. Nat’l Bank (1978) 21 Cal.3d 801,
814 [148 Cal.Rptr. 22, 582 P.2d 109]), give CACI No. 3935, Prejudgment Interest.
This verdict form may need to be augmented for the jury to make any factual
findings that are required in order to calculate the amount of prejudgment interest.
VF-1700 DEFAMATION
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