CACI No. 3941. Punitive Damages - Individual Defendant - Bifurcated Trial (First Phase)
Judicial Council of California Civil Jury Instructions (2022 edition)Download PDF
3941.Punitive Damages - Individual Defendant - Bifurcated Trial
If you decide that [name of defendant]’s conduct caused [name of plaintiff]
harm, you must decide whether that conduct justifies an award of
punitive damages. At this time, you must decide whether [name of
plaintiff] has proved by clear and convincing evidence that [name of
defendant] engaged in that conduct with malice, oppression, or fraud.
The amount of punitive damages, if any, will be decided later.
“Malice” means that [name of defendant] acted with intent to cause
injury or that [name of defendant]’s conduct was despicable and was done
with a willful and knowing disregard of the rights or safety of another. A
person acts with knowing disregard when the person is aware of the
probable dangerous consequences of the person’s conduct and
deliberately fails to avoid those consequences.
“Oppression” means that [name of defendant]’s conduct was despicable
and subjected [name of plaintiff] to cruel and unjust hardship in knowing
disregard of [his/her/nonbinary pronoun] rights.
“Despicable conduct” is conduct that is so vile, base, or contemptible
that it would be looked down on and despised by reasonable people.
“Fraud” means that [name of defendant] intentionally misrepresented or
concealed a material fact and did so intending to harm [name of
New September 2003; Revised April 2004, December 2005, May 2020
Directions for Use
For an instruction explaining “clear and convincing evidence,” see CACI No. 201,
Highly Probable - Clear and Convincing Proof.
In an appropriate case, the jury may be instructed that a false promise or a
suggestion of a fact known to be false may constitute a misrepresentation as the
word “misrepresentation” is used in the instruction’s definition of “fraud.”
Sources and Authority
• When Punitive Damages Permitted. Civil Code section 3294.
• Evidence of Profits or Financial Condition. Civil Code section 3295(d).
• “[Section 3295(d)] affects the order of proof at trial, precluding the admission of
evidence of defendants’ financial condition until after the jury has returned a
verdict for plaintiffs awarding actual damages and found that one or more
defendants were guilty of ‘oppression, fraud or malice,’ in accordance with Civil
Copyright Judicial Council of California
Code section 3294.” (City of El Monte v. Superior Court (1994) 29 Cal.App.4th
272, 274-275 [34 Cal.Rptr.2d 490], internal citations omitted.)
• “Evidence of the defendant’s financial condition is a prerequisite to an award of
punitive damages. In order to protect defendants from the premature disclosure
of their financial position when punitive damages are sought, the Legislature
enacted Civil Code section 3295.” (City of El Monte, supra, 29 Cal.App.4th at p.
276, internal citations omitted.)
• “[C]ourts have held it is reversible error to try the punitive damages issue to a
new jury after the jury which found liability has been excused.” (Rivera v.
Sassoon (1995) 39 Cal.App.4th 1045, 1048 [46 Cal.Rptr.2d 144], internal
• “Under the statute, ‘malice does not require actual intent to harm. [Citation.]
Conscious disregard for the safety of another may be sufficient where the
defendant is aware of the probable dangerous consequences of his or her conduct
and he or she willfully fails to avoid such consequences. [Citation.] Malice may
be proved either expressly through direct evidence or by implication through
indirect evidence from which the jury draws inferences. [Citation.]’ ” (Pfeifer v.
John Crane, Inc. (2013) 220 Cal.App.4th 1270, 1299 [164 Cal.Rptr.3d 112].)
• “Used in its ordinary sense, the adjective ‘despicable’ is a powerful term that
refers to circumstances that are ‘base,’ ‘vile,’ or ‘contemptible.’ As amended to
include this word, the statute plainly indicates that absent an intent to injure the
plaintiff, ‘malice’ requires more than a ‘willful and conscious’ disregard of the
plaintiffs’ interests. The additional component of ‘despicable conduct’ must be
found.” (College Hospital, Inc. v. Superior Court (1994) 8 Cal.4th 704, 725 [34
Cal.Rptr.2d 898, 882 P.2d 894], internal citations omitted.)
6 Witkin, Summary of California Law (11th ed. 2017) Torts, §§ 1727, 1731,
Haning et al., California Practice Guide: Personal Injury, Ch. 3-E, Punitive
Damages, ¶¶ 3:1375, 3:1696 (The Rutter Group)
California Tort Damages (Cont.Ed.Bar) Punitive Damages, §§ 14.1-14.8,
4 Levy et al., California Torts, Ch. 54, Punitive Damages, §§ 54.01-54.06,
54.24[d] (Matthew Bender)
15 California Forms of Pleading and Practice, Ch. 177, Damages, § 177.51
6 California Points and Authorities, Ch. 64, Damages: Tort, § 64.24 et seq.
CACI No. 3941 DAMAGES
Copyright Judicial Council of California