CACI No. VF-411. Parental Liability (Nonstatutory)

Judicial Council of California Civil Jury Instructions (2020 edition)

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VF-411.Parental Liability (Nonstatutory)
We answer the questions submitted to us as follows:
1. Was [name of defendant] aware of habits or tendencies of [name of
minor] that created an unreasonable risk of harm to other
persons and led to [name of plaintiff]’s harm?
1. Yes No
1. If your answer to question 1 is yes, then answer question 2. If you
answered no, stop here, answer no further questions, and have
the presiding juror sign and date this form.
2. Did [name of defendant] have the opportunity and ability to
control the conduct of [name of minor]?
2. Yes No
2. If your answer to question 2 is yes, then answer question 3. If you
answered no, stop here, answer no further questions, and have
the presiding juror sign and date this form.
3. Was [name of defendant] negligent because [he/she/nonbinary
pronoun] failed to exercise reasonable care to prevent [name of
minor]’s conduct?
3. Yes No
3. If your answer to question 3 is yes, then answer question 4. If you
answered no, stop here, answer no further questions, and have
the presiding juror sign and date this form.
4. Was [name of defendant]’s negligence a substantial factor in
causing harm to [name of plaintiff]?
4. Yes No
4. If your answer to question 4 is yes, then answer question 5. If you
answered no, stop here, answer no further questions, and have
the presiding juror sign and date this form.
5. What are [name of plaintiff]’s damages?
[a. Past economic loss
[lost earnings $]
[lost profits $]
[medical expenses $]
[other past economic loss $]
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[a. Total Past Economic Damages: $ ]
[b. Future economic loss
[lost earnings $ ]
[lost profits $]
[medical expenses $]
[other future economic loss $]
[b. Total Future Economic Damages: $ ]
[c. Past noneconomic loss, including [physical
pain/mental suffering:] $ ]
[d. Future noneconomic loss, including [physical
pain/mental suffering:] $ ]
[d. TOTAL $
Signed: Presiding Juror
Dated:
After [this verdict form has/all verdict forms have] been signed, notify
the [clerk/bailiff/court attendant] that you are ready to present your
verdict in the courtroom.
New September 2003; Revised April 2007, December 2010; Renumbered from CACI
No. VF-405 December 2015; Revised December 2016
Directions for Use
This verdict form is based on CACI No. 428, Parental Liability (Nonstatutory).
Questions 1 and 3 can be altered to correspond to one or both of the alternative
bracketed option in elements 1 and 3 of CACI No. 428.
The special verdict forms in this section are intended only as models. They may
need to be modified depending on the facts of the case.
If specificity is not required, users do not have to itemize all the damages listed in
question 5 and do not have to categorize “economic” and “noneconomic” damages,
especially if it is not a Proposition 51 case. The breakdown of damages is optional
depending on the circumstances.
If there are multiple causes of action, users may wish to combine the individual
forms into one form. If different damages are recoverable on different causes of
action, replace the damages tables in all of the verdict forms with CACI No. VF-
3920, Damages on Multiple Legal Theories.
If the jury is being given the discretion under Civil Code section 3288 to award
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prejudgment interest (see Bullis v. Security Pac. Nat’l Bank (1978) 21 Cal.3d 801,
814 [148 Cal.Rptr. 22, 582 P.2d 109]), give CACI No. 3935, Prejudgment Interest.
This verdict form may need to be augmented for the jury to make any factual
findings that are required in order to calculate the amount of prejudgment interest.
VF-412-VF-499. Reserved for Future Use
VF-411 NEGLIGENCE
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© Judicial Council of California.