California Civil Jury Instructions (CACI) (2017)

4552. Affirmative Defense—Work Completed and Accepted—Patent Defect

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4552.Affirmative Defense—Work Completed and
Accepted—Patent Defect
[Name of plaintiff] claims that [his/her] harm was caused by a defect in
the [design/specifications/surveying/planning/supervision/ [or]
observation] of [a construction project/a survey of real property/[specify
project, e.g., the roof replacement]]. [Name of defendant] contends that [he/
she/it] is not responsible for the defect because the project was
completed and the work was accepted by [name of owner]. To succeed
on this defense, [name of defendant] must prove all of the following:
1. That [name of defendant] completed all of [his/her/its] work on
the project;
2. That [name of owner] accepted [name of defendant]’s work; and
3. That an average person during the course of a reasonable
inspection would have discovered the defect.
New December 2013
Directions for Use
Give this instruction to present the affirmative defense of “completed and
accepted.” Under this defense a party under contract for a construction project is
not liable in negligence for injury caused by a patent construction defect once the
project has been completed and the owner has accepted the project. See also CACI
No. 4550, Affırmative Defense—Statute of Limitations—Patent Construction Defect.
The defense applies if the work on the project component that caused the injury
has been completed and accepted, even if the contractor continues to work on other
components of the project. (See Jones v. P.S. Development Co., Inc. (2008) 166
Cal.App.4th 707, 717 [82 Cal.Rptr.3d 882], disapproved on other grounds in Reid
v. Google, Inc. (2010) 50 Cal.4th 512, 113 Cal.Rptr.3d 327, 235 P.3d 988].) Modify
element 1 if necessary to reflect this situation.
Sources and Authority
• “ ‘[W]hen a contractor completes work that is accepted by the owner, the
contractor is not liable to third parties injured as a result of the condition of the
work, even if the contractor was negligent in performing the contract, unless the
defect in the work was latent or concealed. [Citation.] The rationale for this
doctrine is that an owner has a duty to inspect the work and ascertain its safety,
and thus the owner’s acceptance of the work shifts liability for its safety to the
owner, provided that a reasonable inspection would disclose the defect.
[Citation.]’ Stated another way, ‘when the owner has accepted a structure from
the contractor, the owner’s failure to attempt to remedy an obviously dangerous
defect is an intervening cause for which the contractor is not liable.’ The
doctrine applies to patent defects, but not latent defects. ‘If an owner, fulfilling
the duty of inspection, cannot discover the defect, then the owner cannot
effectively represent to the world that the construction is sufficient; he lacks
adequate information to do so.’ ” (Neiman v. Leo A. Daly Co. (2012) 210
Cal.App.4th 962, 969 [148 Cal.Rptr.3d 818], footnote and internal citations
• “ ‘Parties for whom work contracted for is undertaken, must see to it before
acceptance, that the work, as to strength and durability, and all other particulars
necessary to the safety of the property and persons of third parties, is subjected
to proper tests, and that it is sufficient. By acceptance and subsequent use, the
owners assume to the world the responsibility of its sufficiency, and to third
parties, the liability of the contractors has ceased, and their own commenced.’
In other words, having a duty to inspect the work and ascertain its safety before
accepting it, the owner’s acceptance represents it to be safe and the owner
becomes liable for its safety.” (Sanchez v. Swinerton & Walberg Co. (1996) 47
Cal.App.4th 1461, 1466 [55 Cal.Rptr.2d 415], internal citation omitted.)
• “The fact the project did not comply with the plans and specifications or
[defendant] may not have fulfilled all of its duties to [owner] under the
agreement, does not mean the project was not completed.” (Neiman, supra, 210
Cal.App.4th at p. 970.)
• “As there is no evidence that respondents retained control over the machine
[that caused injury], we conclude that they are not liable for [plaintiff]’s
injuries.” (Jones, supra, 166 Cal.App.4th at p. 718.)
• “[A] patent defect is one that can be discovered by the kind of inspection made
in the exercise of ordinary care and prudence. In contrast, a latent defect is
hidden, and would not be discovered by a reasonably careful inspection.” (The
Luckman Partnership, Inc. v. Superior Court (2010) 184 Cal.App.4th 30, 35
[108 Cal.Rptr.3d 606].)
• “The test to determine whether a construction defect is patent is an objective
test that asks ‘whether the average consumer, during the course of a reasonable
inspection, would discover the defect. The test assumes that an inspection takes
place.’ This test generally presents a question of fact, unless the defect is
obvious in the context of common experience; then a determination of patent
defect may be made as a matter of law (including on summary judgment).”
(Creekridge Townhome Owners Assn., Inc. v. C. Scott Whitten, Inc. (2009) 177
Cal.App.4th 251, 256 [99 Cal.Rptr.3d 258], internal citations omitted.)
Secondary Sources
6 Witkin, Summary of California Law (10th ed. 2005) Torts, § 1160
3Witkin, California Procedure (5th ed. 2008) Actions, § 606
12 California Real Estate Law and Practice, Ch. 441, Consumers’ Remedies,
§ 441.01 (Matthew Bender)
10 California Forms of Pleading and Practice, Ch. 104, Building Contracts,
§ 104.41 (Matthew Bender)
17 California Points and Authorities, Ch. 178, Premises Liability, § 178.94
(Matthew Bender)
4553–4559. Reserved for Future Use