2382. Employment of Minor to Sell Controlled Substance
The defendant is charged [in Count ______] with (hiring/employing/ using) someone under 18 years of age to (transport/carry/sell/give away/prepare for sale/peddle) <insert type of controlled substance>, a controlled substance.
To prove that the defendant is guilty of this crime, the People must prove that:
1. The defendant [unlawfully] (hired/employed/used) <insert name of person hired>;
2. <insert name of person hired> was (hired/ employed/used) to (transport/carry/sell/give away/prepare for sale/peddle) <insert type of controlled substance>, a controlled substance;
3. At that time, the defendant was 18 years of age or older;
4. At that time, <insert name of person hired> was under 18 years of age;
5. The defendant knew of the substance's nature or character as a controlled substance.
[Selling for the purpose of this instruction means exchanging a controlled substance for money, services, or anything of value.]
[A person transports something if he or she carries or moves it from one location to another, even if the distance is short.]
[The People do not need to prove that the defendant knew which specific controlled substance was to be (transported/carried/sold/ given away/prepared for sale/peddled), only that (he/she) was aware that it was a controlled substance.]
[Under the law, a person becomes one year older as soon as the first minute of his or her birthday has begun.]
The court has a sua sponte duty to give this instruction defining the elements of the crime.
If the defendant is charged with violating Health and Safety Code section 11354(a), in element 3, the court should replace "18 years of age or older" with "under 18 years of age."
Give the bracketed paragraph about calculating age if requested. (Fam. Code, § 6500; In re Harris (1993) 5 Cal.4th 813, 849-850 [21 Cal.Rptr.2d 373, 855 P.2d 391].)
Elements. Health & Saf. Code, §§ 11353, 11354.
Age of Defendant Element of Offense. People v. Montalvo (1971) 4 Cal.3d 328, 332 [93 Cal.Rptr. 581, 482 P.2d 205].
Knowledge. People v. Horn (1960) 187 Cal.App.2d 68, 74-75 [9 Cal.Rptr. 578].
Selling. People v. Lazenby (1992) 6 Cal.App.4th 1842, 1845 [8 Cal.Rptr.2d 541].
2 Witkin & Epstein, California Criminal Law (3d ed. 2000) Crimes Against Public Peace and Welfare, §§ 103-105.
3 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 73, Defenses and Justifications, § 73.06 (Matthew Bender).
6 Millman, Sevilla & Tarlow, California Criminal Defense Practice, Ch. 140, Challenges to Crimes, § 140.12, Ch. 145, Narcotics and Alcohol Offenses, § 145.01[a], [b], [g], [h], [a], [b], [c] (Matthew Bender).
(New January 2006)