Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Fed. R. Crim. P. 52 - Harmless and Plain Error

(a) Harmless Error. Any error, defect, irregularity, or variance that does not affect substantial rights must be disregarded.

(b) Plain Error. A plain error that affects substantial rights may be considered even though it was not brought to the court’s attention.

(As amended Apr. 29, 2002, eff. Dec. 1, 2002.)